Advertisement

Roots, Motives, and Patterns in Children’s Prosocial Behavior

  • Marian Radke-Yarrow
  • Carolyn Zahn-Waxler
Part of the Critical Issues in Social Justice book series (BLSC, volume 31)

Abstract

Prosocial behavior is a matter of ancient as well as modern interest. The long history of philosophy and social thought about the “goodness” of human nature makes us aware that current empirical research and the theories upon which it is based are not fashioned de novo but have their origins in these predecessors. Human nature has been variously regarded. It has been viewed as innately endowed with feelings of compassion in Confucian philosophy (Chan, 1963), as naturally virtuous and with a communal sense of seif (Rousseau, 1755/1952), as waging a war of all against all and as based on rational self-interest (Hobbes, 1651/1952). Accordingly, children have been variously regarded and reared, and, perhaps, as a result, they have been variously prosocial.

Keywords

Prosocial Behavior Individual Child Distressed Person Developmental Progression Affective Distress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barrett, D. E., and Yarrow, M. R. Prosocial behavior, social inferential ability and assertiveness in children. Child Development, 1977, 48, 475–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chan, W. A source book in Chinese Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  3. Cummings, E. M., Zahn-Waxler, C., and Radke-Yarrow, M. R. Children’s responses to expressions of anger and affection by and between family members. Child Development, 1981, 52, 1274–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Freud, A., and Dann, S. An experiment in group upbringing. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1951, 6, 127–168.Google Scholar
  5. Hobbes, T. Leviathan. In R. M. Hutchins (Ed.), Great books of the western world (Vol. 23). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1952. ( Originally published, 1651 ).Google Scholar
  6. Lasch, C. The culture of narcissism. New York: W. W. Norton, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. Murphy, L. B. Social behavior and child personality. New York: Columbia University Press, 1937.Google Scholar
  8. Radke-Yarrow, M. R., Zahn-Waxler, C.]., and Chapman, M. Children’s prosocial dispositions and behavior. In P. H. Müssen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (Vol. 4 ). New York: Wiley, 1983.Google Scholar
  9. Reykowski, J. Cognitive development and prosocial behavior. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 1977, 8, 35–45.Google Scholar
  10. Rousseau, J. J. On the origin of inequality. In R. M. Hutchins (Ed.), Great books of the western world (Vol. 23). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1952. (Originally published, 1755.)Google Scholar
  11. Sawin, D. B. A field study of children’s reactions to distress in their peers. Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas, Austin, 1980.Google Scholar
  12. Slater, P. The pursuit of loneliness. Boston: Beacon Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  13. Yarrow, M. R., and Waxler, C. J. Dimensions and correlates of prosocial behavior in young children. Child Development, 1976, 47, 118–125. (a)Google Scholar
  14. Yarrow, M. R., and Waxler, C. Z. Emergences and functions of prosocial behaviors in young children. In M. S. Smart and R. C. Smart (Eds.), Infants: Development and relationships. New York: Macmillan, 1978.Google Scholar
  15. Yarrow, M. R., Scott, P. M., and Waxler, C. J. Learning concern for others. Developmental Psychology, 1973, 8, 248–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zahn-Waxler, C. J. Young children’s responses to the emotions of others. Paper, presented at the meeting of the International Conference on Infant Studies, New Häven, Connecticut, April 1980.Google Scholar
  17. Zahn-Waxler, C.J. The social-emotional development of young children with a manic-depressive parent. Paper presented at the meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institutes of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, May 1981.Google Scholar
  18. Zahn-Waxler, C. J., and Radke-Yarrow, M. R. Perspective-taking and prosocial behavior. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1977, 13, 87–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zahn-Waxler, C.J., and Radke-Yarrow, M. R. The development of prosocial behavior: Alternative research strategies. In N. Eisenberg-Berg (Ed.), The development of prosocial behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. Zahn-Waxler, C. J., Radke-Yarrow, M. R., and King, R. A. The impact of affective environment on young children. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, March 1977.Google Scholar
  21. Zahn-Waxler, C. J., Radke-Yarrow, M. R., and King, R. A. Child rearing and children’s prosocial initiations toward victims of distress. Child Development, 1979, 50, 319–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marian Radke-Yarrow
    • 1
  • Carolyn Zahn-Waxler
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Developmental PsychologyNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations