Clinical Laboratory Methods Used for the Classification of Acute Leukemia

  • Margarita Palutke
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 33)


Until a few years ago morphologic examination and cytochemical techniques were the only readily available tools in characterizing acute leukemias. With advances in chemotherapy accurate identification of the leukemic cell types has become essential. The clinical laboratory can now provide a great variety of additional tests resulting in the precise definition of many clinicopathological entities. These tests utilize immunological, biochemical and cytogenetic methods, and flow cytometric analysis of DNA content.


Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Acute Leukemia Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cytochemical Reaction Leukemic Cell Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DAG, Gralnick HR, Sultan C: Proposals for the classification of the acute leukaemias. Br. J. Haematol. 33: 451–458, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DAG, Gralnick HR, Sultan C: The morphological classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Concordance among observers and clinical correlations. Br. J. Haematol. 47: 553–561, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Savage RA, Hoffman GC, Lucas FV: Morphology and cytochemistry of microgranular acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3m). Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 75: 548–552, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Golomb HM, Rowley JD, Vardiman JW, Testa JR, Butler A: “Microgranular” acute promyelocytic leukemia: A distinct clinical, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic entity. Blood 55: 253–259, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dick FR, Armitage JO, Burns CP: Diagnostic concurrence in the subclassification of adult acute leukemia using FrenchAmerican-British criteria. Cancer 49: 916–920, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bennett JM, Begg CB: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study of the cytochemistry of adult acute myeloid leukemia by correlation of subtypes with response and survival. Cancer Res. 41: 4833–4837, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Head DR, Cerezo L, Savage RA, Craven CM, Bickers JN, Hartsock R, Hosty TA, Saiki JH, Wilson HE, Morrison FS, Coltman CA, Hutton JJ: Institutional performance in application of the FAB classification of acute leukemia: The Southwest Oncology Group experience. Cancer (In press).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bell A, Hippel T, Goodman H: Use of cytochemistry and FAB classification in leukemia and other pathological states. Focus 47: 437–471, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bozdach MJ, Kurowski KS, Brynildson SM, Schilling RF: Survival in adult acute leukemia: Correlation with morphology, age and cytogenetics. Blood 85 (Suppl): 135a, 1981.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mertelsmann R, Thaler HT, To L, Gee TS, McKenzie S, Schauer P, Friedman A, Arlin Z, Cirrincione C, Clarkson B: Morphological classification, response to therapy, and survival in 263 adult patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 56: 773–781, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sultan C, Deregnaucourt J, Ko YW, Imbert M, D’Agar MFR, Gouault-Heilmann M, Brun B: Distribution of 250 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to the FAB classification and response to therapy. Br. J. Haematol. 47: 545–551, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yunis JJ: The chromosomal basis of human neoplasia. Science 221: 227–236, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flandrin G, Brouet JC, Daniel MT, Preud’homme JL: Acute leukemia with Burkitt’s tumor cells: A study of six cases with special reference to lymphocyte surface markers. Blood 45: 183–188, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Palutke M, Tabaczka P: Cytochemical and immunological aspects of the acute lymphocytic leukemias (as related to FAB classification). Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 10: 269–275, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Borella L, Sen L: E receptors on blasts from untreated acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL): Comparison of temperature dependence of E rosettes formed by normal and leukemic lymphoid cells. J. Immunol. 114: 187–190, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vogler LB, Crist WM, Bockman DE, Pearl ER, Lawton AR, Cooper MD: Pre-B cell leukemia: A new phenotype of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. N. Eng. J. Med. 298: 872–878, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Foon KA, Schroff RW, Gale RP: Surface markers on leukemia and lymphoma cells: Recent advances. Blood 60: 1–15, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang LMS: Development of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in embryonic calf thymus gland. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 44: 124–131, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCaffrey R, Harrison TA, Parkman R, Baltimore D: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity in human leukemic cells and in normal human thymocytes. N. Eng. J. Med. 292: 775–780, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCaffrey R, Smoler DF, Baltimore D: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in a case of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 70: 521–525, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kung PC, Long JC, McCaffrey RP, Ratliff RL, Harrison TA, Baltimore D: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in the diagnosis of leukemia and malignant lymphoma. Am. J. Med. 64: 788–794, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brouet JC, Preud’homme JL, Penit C, Valensi F, Rouget P, Seligman M: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia with pre-B-cell characteristics. Blood 54: 269–273, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Muehleck SD, McKenna RW, Gale PF, Brunning RD: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-positive cells in bone marrow in the absence of hematologic malignancy. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 79: 277–283, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brodeur GM, Williams DL, Look AT, Bowman WP, Kalwinsky DK: Near-haploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A unique subgroup with a poor prognosis? Blood 58: 14–19, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Williams DL, Tsiatis A, Brodeur GM, Look AT, Melvin S, Bowman WP, Kalwinsky DK, Rivera G, Dahl GV: Prognostic importance of chromosome number in 136 untreated children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 60: 864–871, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Look AT, Melvin SL, Williams DL, Brodeur GM, Dahl GV, Kalwinsky DK, Murphy SB, Mauer AM: Aneuploidy and percentage of S-phase cells determined by flow cytometry correlated with cell phenotype in childhood acute leukemia. Blood 60: 959–967, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margarita Palutke

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations