The Ventricle pp 209-224 | Cite as

Pathophysiology of Heart Failure

  • John E. Strobeck
  • Edmund H. Sonnenblick

Abstract

Congestive heart failure has been considered a syndrome characterized by pulmonary and/or systemic venous congestion accompanied by a low cardiac output. Recently, however, it has become clear that a broad definition of this sort has confused understanding of this syndrome. The term congestive itself ensures that venous congestion is present, but we now know that severe heart failure may exist with normal or even low ventricular filling pressures. Also, pulmonary or systemic venous congestion may be severe in some patients with perfectly normal hearts. Thus, drawing a distinction between myocardial failure, on the one hand, and congestive failure, on the other, has provided a clearer understanding of the syndrome.

Keywords

FatIgue Depression Ischemia Retina Angiotensin 

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Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Strobeck
    • 1
  • Edmund H. Sonnenblick
  1. 1.Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

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