1A Industry Applications: Evolution to Automation
Prior to 1950, with few exceptions, manufacturing was based on the departmental or colony-type setup. Each department was an entity unto itself and was manned by specialists. For instance, we can take a grinding department as an example. It contained a number of grinding machines of various types and was manned by men who knew grinding but knew little or nothing about heat treating, stamping, finishing, or packaging. Materials or parts were delivered to the department by hand or lift truck, accompanied by a factory work-order paper. The parts were ground and the tote box was moved to another department and forgotten.
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