Surface Characteristics of Biological Solids

  • Andreas D. Andreadakis


The activated sludge process is a widely used biological treatment process whose performance depends on the microbial population present as well as the organic wastes to be treated. Recognition of the biological action of sludge bacteria led to the development of a theory of bioxidation based on the analogy of a pure bacterial culture feeding on a homogeneous soluble substrate.


Activate Sludge Mixed Liquor Sludge Volume Index Pure Bacterial Culture Activate Sludge Floc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Campbell, L.A., 1966, Role of phosphate in the activated sludge process, in: “Proceedings of Industrial Waste Conference”, Purdue Univ., 21:214.Google Scholar
  2. Finstein, M.S., and Heukelekian, H., 1967, Gross dimensions of activated sludge flocs with reference to bulking, JWPCF, 39:33.Google Scholar
  3. Friedman, B.A., 1968, Fine structure and composition of the zoogloeal matrix surrounding Zoogloea Ramigera, Journal of Bacteriology, 96:2144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ganczarczyk, J., 1967, Nominal diameter of floc related to oxygen transfer, Discussion, ISED, ASCE, 93:36.Google Scholar
  5. Giles, C.H., and Greczek, 1962, Review of method of purifying and analysing water-soluble dyes, Test. Res. J., 32:506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Giles, C.H., Silva, A.P.D., and Tvired, A.S., 1970, Use of pnitrophen for specific surface measurement of granular solids and fibres, Journal of Applied Chemistry, 20:37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hartmann, L., 1963, Activated sludge floe composition, Water and Sewage Works, 110:262.Google Scholar
  8. Kipling, J.J., 1965, “Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Eloctrolytes”, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Kliger, B., 1966, “Bound Water and Zoogloeal Solids in Activated Sludge”, PhD Thesis, Univ. of Manchester.Google Scholar
  10. Krul, J.M., 1977, Activity of Zoogloea Ramigera growing in flocs and in suspension, Water Research, 11:45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Laubenberger, G., and Hartmann, L., 1971, Physical structure of activated sludge in aerobic stabilization, Water Research, 5:335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee, S.S., Jackman, A.P., and Schroeder, E.D., 1975, A two-state microbial growth kinetics model, Water Research, 9:491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Longmuir, G., 1975, “Studies on the Nature of Activated Sludge”, PhD Thesis, Dept. of Civil Eng., Univ. of Strathclyde.Google Scholar
  14. Parker, D.S., Kaufman, W.K., and Jenkins, D., 1971, Physical conditioning of activated sludge floes, JWPCF, 43:1817.Google Scholar
  15. Parker, D.S., Clifford, W.R., and King, P.H., 1972, Biological conditioning for improved sludge filtrability, JWPCF, 44:2066.Google Scholar
  16. Pipes, W.O., 1967, Bulking of activated sludge, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 9:185.Google Scholar
  17. Steiner, A.E., McLaren, D.A., and Forster, C.F., 1976, The nature of activated sludge flocs, Water Research, 10:25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Walen, W.J., Bungay, H.R., and Saunders, W.M., 1969, Microelectrode determination of oxygen profiles in microbial slime, Environmental Science and Technology, 3:1297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas D. Andreadakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Sanitary Engineering Civil Engineering DepartmentNational Technical University of AthensGreece

Personalised recommendations