Mechanisms for Energy Shifts of Atomic K X Rays

  • P. G. Hansen
  • B. Jonson
  • G. L. Borchert
  • O. W. B. Schult
Part of the Physics of Atoms and Molecules book series (PAMO)

Abstract

The energies of the K-series X rays (Fig. 1) are for a given element almost independent of the source and the mode of excitation. Nevertheless, by means of suitably designed spectrometers, to be discussed in Sec. 2, it is possible to observe minute energy shifts. The main part of the present Chapter is devoted to experiments in which such shifts are observed, and to their interpretation.

Keywords

Mercury Uranium Cerium Auger Xenon 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Åberg, T., 1981, in Fabian et al. (1981), p. 251.Google Scholar
  2. Alder, K., G. Baur, and U. Raff, 1972, Helv. Phys. Acta 45, 765.Google Scholar
  3. Azároff, L. V., editor, 1974, X-Ray Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  4. Bernstein, J., T. D. Lee, and C. N. Yang, 1958, Phys. Rev. 111, 313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhattacherjee, S. K., F. Boehm, and P. L. Lee, 1968, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhattacherjee, S. K., F. Boehm, and P. L. Lee, 1969, Phys. Rev. 188, 1919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaise, J., 1958, Ann. Phys. (Paris) 3, 1019.Google Scholar
  8. Boehm, F., 1968, CALT-63-104 AEC Research and Development Report, presented at the Sommerfeld Memorial Meeting, Munich, September 1968.Google Scholar
  9. Boehm, F., 1975, in Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, edited by B. Crasemann (Academic, New York), p. 411.Google Scholar
  10. Boehm, F., and P. L. Lee, 1974, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonn, J., G. Huber, H.-J. Kluge, and E. W. Otten, 1976, Z. Phys. A276, 203, and references therein.Google Scholar
  12. Borchert, G. L., 1976, Z. Naturforsch., Teil A 31, 102.Google Scholar
  13. Borchert, G. L., P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. L. Ravn, O. W. B. Schult, and P. Tidemand-Petersson, 1977, Phys. Lett 63A, 15.Google Scholar
  14. Borchert, G. L., P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, I. Lindgren, H. L. Ravn, O. W. B. Schult, and P. Tidemand-Petersson, 1978a, Phys. Lett. 65A, 297.Google Scholar
  15. Borchert, G. L., P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, I. Lindgren, H. L. Ravn, O. W. B. Schult, and P. Tidemand-Petersson, 1978b, Phys. Lett. 66A, 347.Google Scholar
  16. Borchert, G. L., P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. L. Ravn, O. W. B. Schult, and P. Tidemand-Petersson, 1980a, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 178, 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borchert, G. L., P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. L. Ravn, and O. W. B. Schult, 1980b, Proc. XVIII Int. Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics, Bormio, 1980, edited by I. Iori (University of Milan), p. 579.Google Scholar
  18. Borchert, G. L., P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. L. Ravn, and J. P. Desclaux, 1980C, in Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants 6, edited by J. A. Nolen and W. B. Benenson (Plenum, New York), p. 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borchert, G. L., O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, 1981a, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Nuclei far from Stability, Helsingør, 1981 (CERN, Geneva, CERN 81-09), p. 56.Google Scholar
  20. Borchert, G. L., P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. L. Ravn, and O. W. B. Schult, 1981b, Hyperfine Interact. 10, 1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Borchert, G. L., O. W. B. Schult, J. Speth, P. G. Hansen, B. Jonson, H. L. Ravn, and J. B. McGrory, 1982, Nuovo Cimento, 73A, 273.Google Scholar
  22. Breit, G., 1957, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brix, P., 1977, Naturwissenschaften 64, 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brix, P., 1981, Phys. Blätter 37, 181.Google Scholar
  25. Brix, P., 1982, Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg Report No. MPI H-1982-V3.Google Scholar
  26. Brix, P. and H. Kopfermann, 1958, Rev. Mod. Phys. 30, 517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brix, P., H. V. Buttlar, F. G. Houtermans, and H. Kopfermann, 1952, Z. Phys. 133 192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brockmeier, R. T., F. Boehm, and E. N. Hatch, 1965, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carlson, T. A., C. W. Nestor, Jr., T. C. Tucker, and F. B. Malik, 1968, Phys. Rev. 169, 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cauchois, Y., 1932a, C. R. Acad. Sci. 194, 362; 1479.Google Scholar
  31. Cauchois. Y., 1932b J. Phys. Rad. 3, 320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen, M. H., B. Crasemann, M. Aoyagi, K.-N. Huang, and H. Mark, 1981, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 26, 561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chesler, R. B., and F. Boehm, 1968, Phys. Rev. 166, 1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crasemann, B., M. H. Chen, J. P. Briand, P. Ghevallier, A. Chetioui, and M. Tavernier, 1979, Phys. Rev. C 19, 1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De Rújula, A., 1981, Nucl. Phys. B188, 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Desclaux, J. P., 1975, Comput. Phys. Commun. 9, 31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Deslattes, R. D., and E. G. Kessler, Jr., 1979, in Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants 6, edited by J. A. Nolen and W. B. Benenson (Plenum Press, New York), p. 203.Google Scholar
  38. Deslattes, R. D., and E. G. Kessler, Jr, 1985, Chapter 5 of this volume.Google Scholar
  39. Dolginov, A. Z., 1956, Nucl. Phys. 2, 723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dolginov, A. Z., 1958, Nucl. Phys. 6, 460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dousse, J.-Cl., and J. Kern 1976, Phys. Lett. A59, 159.Google Scholar
  42. DuMond, J. W. M., 1947, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 18, 626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Egorov, A. I., A. A. Rodionov, A. S. Ryl’nikov, A. E. Sovestnov, O. I. Sumbaev, and V. A. Shaburov, 1978, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 27, 514 [English transl.: JETP Lett. 27, 483].Google Scholar
  44. Emery, G. T., 1975, in Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, edited by B. Crasemann (Academic, New York), p. 214.Google Scholar
  45. Emrich, H. J., G. Fricke, M. Hoehn, K. Käser, M. Mallot, H. Miska, B. Robert-TISSOT, D. Rychel, L. Schaller, L. Schellenberg, H. Schneuwly, B. Shera, H. G. Sieberling, R. Steffen, H. D. Wohlfahrt, and Y. Yamazaki, 1981, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Nuclei far from Stability, Helsingør, 1981 (CERN, Geneva, CERN 81-09), p. 33.Google Scholar
  46. Fabian, D. J., H. Kleinpoppen, and L. M. Watson, 1981, editors, Inner-Shell and X-Ray Physics of Atoms and Solids (Plenum Press, New York).Google Scholar
  47. Fedorov, V. V., and A. S. Ryl’nikov, 1979, Zh. Eksp Teor. Fiz. 76, 1986 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 49, 1007].Google Scholar
  48. Freedman, M. S., 1974, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 24, 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Freedman, M. S., 1977, Phys. Rev. A 16, 1315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Glauber, R. J., and P. C. Martin, 1956, Phys. Rev. 104, 158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Golovin, A. F., and A. R. Striganov, 1967, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 93, 111 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 658 (1968)].Google Scholar
  52. Grushko, A. I., T. B. Mezentseva, N. M. Miftakhov, Yu. P. Smirnov, A. E. Sovestnov, O. I. Sumbaev, and V. A. Shaburov, 1978, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 74, 501 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 263].Google Scholar
  53. Grushko, A. I., K. E. Kir’yanov, N.M. Miftakhov, A. S. Ryl’nikov, Yu. P. Smirnov, and V. V. Fedorov, 1981, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, 120 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 59].Google Scholar
  54. Hahn, A. A., K.-C. Wang, F. Boehm, H. E. Henrikson, and P. Vogel, 1976, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hahn, A. A., J. P. Miller R. J. Powers, A. Zehnder, A. M. Rushton, R. E. Welsh, A. R. Kunselman, P. Roberson, and H. K. Walter, 1979, Nucl. Phys. A314, 361.Google Scholar
  56. Hansen, P. G., 1978, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 154, 321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hansen, P. G., G. L. Borchert, B. Jonson, H. L. Ravn, and O. W. B. Schult, 1981, in Fabian et al. (1981), p. 163.Google Scholar
  58. Hedin L., 1974, in Azároff (1974), p. 226.Google Scholar
  59. Heilig, K., and A. Steudel, 1974, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Henrikson, H. E., and F. Boehm, 1974, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 121, 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hoffmann, B., G. Baur, and J. Speth, 1984, Z. Phys. A 315, 57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huang, K.-N., M. Aoyagi, M. H. Chen, B. Crasemann, and H. Mark, 1976, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Johansson, B., 1974, Phil. Mag. 30, 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Johansson, B., 1975, Phys. Rev. B 11, 2740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Johansson, B., 1978, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 39, 467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Johansson, B., and N. Mårtensson, 1980, Phys. Rev. B 21, 4427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Johansson, B., and A. Rosengren, 1975, Phys. Rev. B 11, 2836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kessler, D., H. Mes, A. C. Thompson, H. L. Anderson, M. S. Dixit, C. K. Hargrove, and R. J. Mckee, 1975, Phys. Rev. C 11, 1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Knowles, J. W., 1979, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 162, 677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Koch, H. R., H. G. Börner, J. A. Pinston, W. F. Davidson, J. Fandon, R. Roussille, and O. W. B. Schult, 1980, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 175, 401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kopfermann, H., 1958, Kernmomente (Academic, New York).Google Scholar
  72. Korostyleva. L. A., 1957, Opt. Spektrosk. 3, 536.Google Scholar
  73. Krause, M. O., and J. H. Oliver, 1979, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Law, J., and A. Suzuki, 1982, Phys. Rev. C 25, 514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lederer, C. M., V. S. Shirley, E. Browne, J. M. Dairiki, R. E. Doebler, A. A. Shihab-Eldin, L. J. Jardine, J. K. Tuli, and A. B. Buyrn. 1978, Table of Isotopes, Seventh Ed. (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  76. Lee, P. L., and F. Boehm, 1971, Phys. Lett. 35B, 33.Google Scholar
  77. Lee, P. L., and F. Boehm, 1973, Phys. Rev. C 8, 819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lee P. L., E. C. Seltzer, and F. Boehm, 1972, Phys. Lett. 38A, 29.Google Scholar
  79. Lee, P. L., F. Boehm, and P. Vogel, 1974, Phys. Rev. A 9, 614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lee, P. L., F. Boehm, and A. A. Hahn, 1978, Phys. Rev. C 17, 1859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lindgren, I., A. Timmermann, and E. Matthias, 1981, in Book of Abstracts for the European Conf. on Atomic Physics, Heidelberg 1981 (European Physical Society, Heidelberg), Vol. 5A, Part 1, p. 235.Google Scholar
  82. Malaguti, F., A. Uguzzoni, E. Verondini, and P. E. Hodgson, 1982, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 5, 1.Google Scholar
  83. Manning, T. E., G. E. Anderson, and W. W. Watson, 1950, Phys. Rev. 78, 417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Martin, P. C., and R. J. Glauber, 1958, Phys. Rev. 109, 1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. McGrory, J. B., and B. A. Brown, 1982, Proceedings Conf. on Lasers in Nuclear Physics, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1982 (to be published) and references therein.Google Scholar
  86. Merton, T. R., 1919. Nature 104, 406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Molkanov, L. I., Yu. S. Grushko, I. M. Band, G. A. Shadrina, and M. B. Trzhaskovskaya, 1976, Zh Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 70, 2219 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  88. Morita, M., 1973, Prog. Theor. Phys. 49, 1574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Moscatelli, F. A. O. Redi, H. H. Stroke, and R. L. Wiggins, 1983, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Myers, W. D., 1969, Phys. Lett. 30B, 451.Google Scholar
  91. Myers, W. D., 1977, Droplet Model of Atomic Nuclei (Plenum, New York).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Myers, W. D., and W. J. Swiatecki, 1974, Ann. Phys. (N. Y.) 84, 186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nagel, D. J., and W. L. Baun, 1974, in Azároff (1974), p. 445.Google Scholar
  94. Nelson, G. C., W. John, and B. G. Saunders, 1969, Phys. Rev. 187, 1; 1970, Phys. Rev. A 2, 542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nestor, C. W., T. C. Tucker, T. A. Carlson, F. B. Malik, and C. Froese, 1966, Oak Ridge National Laboratory report No. ORNL-4027.Google Scholar
  96. Otozai, K., R. Arakawa, and T. Saito, 1978, Nucl. Phys. A 297, 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Otten, E.-W., 1981, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Nuclei far from Stability, Helsingør, 1981 (CERN, Geneva CERN 81-09), p. 3.Google Scholar
  98. Petrovich. E. V., Yu. P. Smirnov, V. S. Zykov, A. I. Grushko, O. I. Sumbaev, I. M. Band, and M. B. Trzhaskovskaya, 1971, Zh. Eskp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 1756 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 935].Google Scholar
  99. Powers, R. J., P. Barreau, B. Bihoreau, J. Miller, J. Morgenstern, J. Picard, and L. Roussel, 1979, Nucl. Phys. A 316, 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Primakoff, H., and F. T. Porter, 1953, Phys. Rev. 89, 930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ravn, H. L., 1979, Phys. Rep. 54, 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rebel, H., 1980, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe report No. 2974.Google Scholar
  103. Rebel, H., and Schatz, 1982, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe report No. 3344.Google Scholar
  104. Reiner, A. S., and L. Wilets, 1962, Nucl. Phys. 36, 457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rinker, G. A., and J. Speth, 1978, Nucl. Phys. A 306, 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rose, Th., and G. L. Borchert, 1985 (to be published).Google Scholar
  107. Rosén, A., and I. Lindgren, 1968, Phys. Rev. 176, 114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rosén, A., and I. Lindgren, 1972, Phys. Scr. 6, 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rupnik, T., and B. Crasemann, 1972, Phys. Rev. C 6, 1780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Rychel, D., 1980, Diploma-Thesis, Institute for Nuclear Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz.Google Scholar
  111. Ryl’nikov, A. S., A. I. Egorov, G. A. Ivanov, V. I. Marushenko, A. F. Mezentsev, A. I. Smirnov, O. I. Sumbaev, and V. V. Fedorov, 1972, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 63, 53 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 36, 27 (1973)].Google Scholar
  112. Saito, T., A. Shinohara, and K. Otazai, 1980, Phys. Lett. 92B, 293.Google Scholar
  113. Sandström, A. E., 1957, in Handbuch der Physik, edited by S. Flügge (Springer, Berlin), p. 78.Google Scholar
  114. Sauder, W. C., J. R. Huddle, J. D. Wilson, and R. E. Lavilla, 1977, Phys. Lett. 63A, 313.Google Scholar
  115. Schnopper, H. W., 1967, Phys. Rev. 154, 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schult, O. W. B., 1965, Kerntechnik 7, 309.Google Scholar
  117. Seltzer, E., 1969, Phys. Rev. 188, 1916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Seppi, E. J., H. E. Henrikson, F. Boehm, and J. W. M. Dumond, 1962, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 16, 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Serber, R., and H. S. Snyder, 1952, Phys. Rev. 87, 152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shaburov, V. A., I. M. Band, A. I. Grushko, T. B. Mezentseva, Yu. P. Petrovich, A. E. Smirnov, A. E. Sovestnov, O. I. Sumbaev, M. B. Trzhaskovskaya, and I. A. Markova, 1973, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 65, 1157 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 573].Google Scholar
  121. Skardhamar, H. F., 1970, Nucl. Phys. A151, 154.Google Scholar
  122. Smirnov, Y. P., O. I. Sumbaev, E. V. Petrovich, V. S. Zykov, A. I. Egorov, and A. I. Grushko, 1969, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 1139 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 622].Google Scholar
  123. Speth, J., L. Zamick, and P. Ring, 1974, Nucl. Phys. A 232, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stacey, D. N., 1966, Rep. Progr. Phys. 29, 171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Steudel, A., 1952, Z. Phys. 133, 438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sumbaev, O. I., 1957, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 1276 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  127. Sumbaev, O. I., 1959, Izv. Akad. Mauk SSSR, Ser. Fiz. 23, 880 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  128. Sumbaev, O. I., 1969, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 57, 1716 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 30, 927 (1970)].Google Scholar
  129. Sumbaev, O. I., 1976, Chemical Effects in X-Ray Spectroscopy, in Modern Physics and Chemistry (Academic, London), Vol. 1, p. 31.Google Scholar
  130. Sumbaev, O. I., 1978, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 124, 281 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. Usp. 21, 141].Google Scholar
  131. Sumbaev, O. I., and E. G. Lapin, 1980, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 78, 803 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 403].Google Scholar
  132. Sumbaev, O. I., and A. F. Mezentsev, 1965a, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 48, 445 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 21, 295].Google Scholar
  133. Sumbaev, O. I., and A. F. Mezentsev, 1965b, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 49, 459 [English transl.: Sov. Phys. JETP 22, 323 (1966)].Google Scholar
  134. Sumbaev, O. I., and A. I. Smirnov, 1963, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 22, 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sumbaev, O. I., A. F. Mezentsev, V. I. Marushenko, A. S. Ryl’nikov, and G. A. Ivanov, 1969, Yad. Fiz. 9, 906 [English transl.: Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 9, 529].Google Scholar
  136. Thibault, C., 1981, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Nuclei far from Stability, Helsingør, 1981 (CERN, Geneva, CERN 81-09), p. 47.Google Scholar
  137. Thompson, R. C., A. Hanser, K. Bekk, G. Meisel, and D. Frölich, 1982, Z. Phys. A305, 89.Google Scholar
  138. Timmermann, A., 1980, Z. Phys. A 296, 93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Uher, R. A., and R. A. Sorensen, 1966, Nucl. Phys. 86, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Van Eijk, C. W. E., and F. Schütte, 1970, Nucl. Phys. A 151, 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Van Eijk, C. W. E., and M. J. C. Vissher, 1970, Phys. Lett. 33B, 349.Google Scholar
  142. Walen, R. J., and C. Briançon, 1975, in Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, edited by B. Crasemann (Academic, New York), Vol. 1, p. 233.Google Scholar
  143. Wang, K. C., 1979, thesis, Dept. of Physics, California Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  144. Wang, K. C., A. A. Hahn, and F. Boehm, 1978a, Phys. Rev. A 17, 1735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wang, K. C., A. A. Hahn, F. Boehm, and P. Vogel, 1978b, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wu, C. S., and S. A. Moszkowski, 1965, Beta Decay (Wiley-Interscience, New York).Google Scholar
  147. Yamazaki, Y., H. D. Wohlfahrt, E. B. Shera, M. V. Hoehn, and R. M. Steffen, 1979, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Hansen
    • 1
  • B. Jonson
    • 2
  • G. L. Borchert
    • 3
  • O. W. B. Schult
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of PhysicsUniversity of AarhusAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.CERN-ISOLDECERNGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Institut für KernphysikKernforschungsanlageJülichGermany

Personalised recommendations