Heavy Metals and Pregnancy

  • Howard T. StrassnerJr.
  • Carolyn Weller Arnolds


Many exogenous substances are capable of causing disease when introduced into humans. Among these are heavy metals. Of the heavy metals, attention is focused on cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel, as they have the potential for adverse fetal effects as a result of maternal exposure. Therefore, exposure to one or more of these elements in pregnancy causes not only concern for the production of disease and disability in the mother but additional concern for the safety and well-being of the fetus.


Lead Exposure Blood Lead Level ALAD Activity Fetal Toxicity Disodium Edetate 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard T. StrassnerJr.
  • Carolyn Weller Arnolds

There are no affiliations available

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