International declarations prescribing torture, while necessary and useful, have had little effect on the practice of torture in 50 or more countries around the world. It would seem that the equalising balance of nuclear power, and corresponding increase in subversion or insurgency have resulted in increasing levels of counter-insurgency operations by security forces. Man has always been willing to invest immense treasure, ingenuity and creativity in the waging of war. Of course insurgency is not exclusively a modern phenomenon and some techniques of interrogation of prisoners are as old as mankind. Techniques often have both a psychological and physical basis, and Amnesty International (I) and others have widely published the details of physical tortures, some new, some old, but all equally abhorrent. Often sexual assault and humiliations, rigid control, threats and promises are combined with physical pain through beating and painful postures. Deprivation of sensation, food, water and sleep combined with other techniques have been known for centuries as methods of coercion. Their systematic use seems to have reached a higher level of intensity than previously known.
KeywordsPost Traumatic Stress Disorder Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Painful Posture International Declaration Modern Phenomenon
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Amnesty International Report on Torture. Duckworth, London,1973.Google Scholar
- 2.R. J. Daly, “Psychiatric Effects of Counter-Insurgency Operations”. American Psychiatric Association AGM, Miami,May 1976.Google Scholar
- 3.R.J. Dally “Compensation and Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture. An Example of preventive psychiatry”. Danish Med. Bulletin.27.5:245–248. 1980Google Scholar
- 4.R. J. Daly, “Torture and other forms of Inhuman and Degrading Treatment”. Proceedings of the WHO Working Group on Psychosocial Consequence of Violence. Martinus Nijhoff. Hague. 1983.Google Scholar
- 5.European Court of Human Rights. Report of Commission, adopted on 25th January, 1976. Strasbourg.Google Scholar
- 6.European Court of Human Rights Judgement 18th January, 1978. Strasbourg.Google Scholar
- 7.J.P. Bastiaans, Psychosomatische Gevolgen van Onderdrukking en Verzet. N.V. Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij- Amsterdam, 1957.Google Scholar
- 8.L. Eitinger and A. Strom. “Mortality and Morbidity after Excessive Stress”. Humanities Press. New York, 1973.Google Scholar
- 11.“Medical Sequelae of Torture”. Editorial, Lancet:i,140,1981.Google Scholar