Simulation programs have completely replaced breadboards (prototype boards with discrete components) as a technique for verifying integrated circuit design acceptability. In fact, a breadboard may give results which have little resemblance to the manufactured circuit performances due to their completely different parasitic components. Simulation programs are also used to avoid the fabrication of prototype integrated circuits because fabrication and testing of an integrated circuit to verify a design is both expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, extensive probing is not possible and modification of circuit components to determine a better design is practically infeasible.
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