Advertisement

Thermosyphon Solar Energy Water Heaters

  • B. Norton
  • S. D. Probert

Abstract

A review of research, development and system appraisal activities concerned with natural-circulation solar-energy water-heaters is presented. The history of their use and the factors which have influenced their popularity are discussed. An overview of the present commercial situation is provided and the advanced product engineering of recent designs highlighted. Mathematical models which describe the thermal behaviours and the experimentally-observed operational characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heaters are examined. Alternative means of preventing nocturnal reverse circulations are discussed. Results are reported of studies comparing thermosyphon unit performances with those of other solar-energy water-heaters. Comparative evaluations are also reported for the behaviours of direct and indirect thermosyphon systems. Current approaches to standard test procedures for rating whole systems are described.

Keywords

Heat Exchanger Storage Tank Solar Collector Solar Water Natural Circulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    C. Gadomski, “Amcor profits from close dealer ties,” Solar Age, 9, 45–47 (June 1984).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA (1980).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. A. Bainbridge, Integral Passive Solar Water Heater Book, Passive Solar Institute, Davis, California, USA (1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Mertol and R. Greif, “A review of natural-circulation loops,” in Natural Convection: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by W. Aung, S. Kakac and R. Viskanta, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, USA (1985).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. J. Bailey, Solar Heater, US Patent No. 966, 070 (1910).Google Scholar
  6. 67.
    K. Butti and J. Perlin, A Golden Thread, Van Nostrand, Reinhold Co., New York, USA, (1980).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    F. A. Brooks, “Solar energy and its use for heating water in California,” in Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 602, University of California, Berkeley, California (1936).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. A. Brooks, “Use of solar energy for heating water” in Smithsonian Report, 157–181 (1939).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. J. Millas, “Some bioclimatic issues in the design of ocean front communities: The example of “old” Miami Beach, Florida,” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, 309–316 ( Crete, Greece), Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K. (June 1983).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Carnes, “Heating water by solar energy,” Agricultural Engineering, 6 (13), 156–159 (1932).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. L. Alt, “Sun effect and the design of solar heaters,” Heating, Piping and Air Conditioning, 111–118 (February 1935).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Merle, “Solar heaters for service water,” Heating and Ventilation, 37, 22–26 (1940).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. E. Scott, “The solar water heater industry in South Florida: History and projections,” Solar Energy, 18, 387–393 (1976).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ANON, “Putting sunbeams on the roof to work,” Plumbing and Heating Journal, 117, 44–46 (1946).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. M. Hawkins, “Domestic solar water heating in Florida,” Engineering and Industrial Experimental Station Bulletin, 18, University of Florida, Gainsville, Florida, USA (September 1947).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. E. Root, “Practical application of solar energy in Florida,” Florida Scientist, 39 (3), 138–172 (1976).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. I. Yellot and R. Sobotka, “An investigation of solar water heater performance,” ASHRAE Transactions 7, 425–453 (1964).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Schwolsky, “Solar Installers: The Evolution of a Trade,” Solar Age, 28–30, 48 (March 1978).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Andrassy, “Solar water heaters,” Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, Italy, 20–22 (August 1961).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Sobotka, “Solar water heaters,” Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on New Resources of Energy, Rome Italy, 21–31 (August 1961).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Bates, “A solar water-heating system,” Journal of International Sugar, 43 (514), 309–310 (1941).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. N. Morse, “Solar water heaters,” Proceedings of the World Symposium on Applied Solar Energy, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 191–200 (1955).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. N. W. Chinnery, “Solar water heating in South Africa,” CSIR Research Report, 284, 1–79 (1967).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Whillier, “The utilization of solar energy in South Africa,” Journal of the South African Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2 (10), 261–267 (1953).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. B. Ng and C. T. Leung, “Solar technology in China: A review”, Sunworld, 6 (4), 114–117 (1982).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Gough and A. Z. Lin, “Solar energy research and application in China”, Proceedings of the United Nations Symposium on Solar Science and Technology, Beijing, China, 1, 214–216 (1980).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. N. Mathur, M. L. Khanna, T. N. Davey and S. P. Suri, “Domestic solar water heater,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 18 (A), 51–58 (1958).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Savornin, “Study of solar water heating in Algeria,” Proceedings of the Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, Italy, 5, 20 (August 1964).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. N. Morse, “The Design and Construction of Solar Water Heaters,” Report E.D. I, Central Experimental Workshops, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, Australia (February 1955).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. N. Morse, “Solar Water Heaters for Domestic and Farm Use,” Report E.D. 5, Engineering Section, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, Australia (September 1957).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. T. Czarnecki, “Performance of experimental solar water heaters in Australia,” Solar Energy, 2, 2–6 (1958).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. N. Morse, “Solar energy research: Some Australian investigations,” Solar Energy, 3, 26–30 (1959).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    ANON, “Report and Recommendations”, Inter-departmental Committee on Equipment in Tropical Staff Houses and Community Amenities: Appendix D., Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (December 1957).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    I. Tanishita, “Present status of solar water heaters in Japan,” Transactions of the Conference on the Use of Solar Energy, Tucson, Arizona, USA, 3, 67–77 (1955).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    I. Tanishita, “Recent development of solar water heaters in Japan”, Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, Italy, 102–110 (August 1961).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    I. Oshira, “The use of solar radiation in Japan”, Proceedings of the International Seminar on Solar and Aeolian Energy, Sounion, Greece, 215–219 (September 1961).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    I. Tanishita, “Present situation of commercial solar water heaters in Japan”, Proceedings of the International Solar Energy Society Conference, Melbourne, Australia, Paper 2 /73 (March 1970).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    ANON, “Sales Literature for HES-202 Solar Water Heater”, Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan (1981).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    ANON, “Sales Literature for SW-T202B and SW-T403A Solar Water Heaters” Yazaki Corporation, Tokyo, Japan (1981).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    P. R. Zweig, “The Farallones approach: Stretching the prototype”, Alternative Sources of Energy, 44, 10–12 (1980).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. Johnson, “Solar hot water: An owner-builder perspective”, Alternative Sources of Energy, 43, 18–22 (1980).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. Weenan, H. Bergan and E. Smith, “A solar water heater from Botswana”, Appropriate Technology, 77 (2), 4–5 (1980).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    B. T. Austin, “The Andros project”, Proceedings of the Fourth National Passive Solar Conference, Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 622 (October 1979).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    S. S. Nanwani, “Comparative study of two thermosyphon solar water heaters in the climate of San Jose, (Costa Rica)”, Solar World Forum, Brighton, England, Paper I/Al/6 (August 1981).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. Masson, “Solar motors with flat-plate collectors”, Solar Energy, 10(4), 165– 169 (1965).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J. Arias, C. Buerba and R. Best, “Solar and biogas milk pasteurizer”, Proceedings of the International Seminar on Energy Conservation and the Use of Solar and Other Renewable Energies in Argiculture, Horticulture and Fishculture, London, England, Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 1–7 (September 1980).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    G. Grossman, A. Shitzer and Y. Zvirin, “Heat transfer analysis of a flat-plate solar energy collector”, Solar Energy, 19, 493–502 (1977).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. Wolf, A. Tamir and A. I. Kudish, “A central solar domestic hot water system performance and economic analysis”, Energy, 5, 191–205 (1980).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. Coxon, “Domestic water heating in Israel”, Sunworld, 6(4), 108–109, 121 (1982).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Shitzer, D. Kalmanoviz, Y. Zvirin and G. Grossman, “Experiments with a flat-plate solar water heating system in thermosyphonic flowr”, Solar Energy, 22, 27–36 (1979).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. Adachi, “Solar energy water-heaters in Japan”, Journal of Solar Energy, 6(2), 80–86, (1980). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    I. Lowe, D. E. Backhouse and M. Sheumacke, “The experience of solar hot-water systems”, Search, 15, 165–167 (1984).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    P. WilTbulswas, “Economic analysis of solar water-heater arid solar stills in Thailand”, Solar Energy International Progress, Proceedings of the International Symposium - Workshop on Solar Energy, Cairo, Egypt, 4, Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 2126–2137 (June 1978).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    N. M. Nahar, “Energy conservation and field performance of a natural circulation type solar water heater”, Energy, 5, 461–464 (1984).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    G. Yaciuk, “Agricultural applications of solar energy”, Solar Energy Conversion II, Selected Lectures From the International Symposium on Solar Energy Utilization, London, Ontario, Canada, Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 337–353 (August 1980).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    B. H. Bowen, “Performance of solar water heaters manufactured in Sierrra Leone, West Africa”, International Journal of Ambient Energy, 4, 69–78 (1983).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    R. Lazzarin, “Gli impianti ad energia solare a circolazione naturale”, L’Installatore Italiano, 32 (7), 939–948 (1981).Google Scholar
  58. 59.
    A. Russel-Cowan, “Every man’s solar energy”, Proceedings of Solar Energy in the 580’s Conference, London, England, Pergamon Press, Oxford, U.K., 69–77 (January 1980).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    ANON, “A study of installation problems and component interaction in solar collector water-heating systems”, Report for the Energy Technology Support Unit of the U.K. Department of Energy, Pendar Technical Associates Ltd., Bridgewater, Somerset, England (February 1979).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    B. Norton, L. J. Petts, D. Smellie and S. D. Probert, “Opinions of prospective purchasers concerning water heating by solar energy”, Proceedings of the UK-ISES Conference on Developing the Market in Solar Energy Thermal Systems, London, England, 69–78 (December 1982).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    ANON, “The self-control on the sale of solar hot water heaters”, Solar Systems, 8, 37–42 (1980). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    N. Yamaguchi, “Installation of solar collectors”, Journal of the Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, 57(1), 55–59 (1983). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Private Communication. SolaHart, Perth, Western Australia (1984).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    D. J. Close, “The performance of solar water heaters with natural circulation”, Solar Energy, 6, 33–40 (1962).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    J. C. V. Chinappa, “Letter to the editor”, Solar Energy, 7, 26 (1963).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    V. G. Desa, “Solar energy utilization at Dacca”, Solar Energy, 8, 83–90 (1963).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. Iqbal, “Free-convective effects inside tubes of fiat-plate solar collectors”, Solar Energy, 10 (4), 207–211 (1966).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    F. W. Larsen and J. P. Hartnett, “Effects of aspect ratio and tube orientation on free-convection heat transfer to water and mercury in enclosed circular tubes”, ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, 83 (1), 87–93 (1961).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    C. L. Gupta and H. P. Garg, “System design in solar water heaters with natural circulation”, Solar Energy, 12, 163–182 (1968).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    A. V. Spyridonos, “Contribution a Panalyse du regime d’un thermosiphon solaire”, Bulletin de Comples, 19, 19–28 (June 1972). In French.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    A. V. Tzafestas, A. V. Spyridonos and N. G. Koumoutsos, “Finite-difference modelling, identification and simulation of a solar water-heater”, Solar Energy, 16, 25–31 (1974).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    M. S. Sodha and G. N. Tiwari, “Analysis of natural circulation solar water- heating systems”, Energy Conversion and Management, 21, 283–288 (1981).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    M. S. Sodha, S. N. Shukia and G. N. Tiwari, “Transient analysis of a natual circulation solar water heater with a heat exchanger”, Journal of Energy, T, 107–111 (1983).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    P. K. Sarma, A. S. Al-Juboruri and S. J. Al-Janadi, “An explicit analysis of a natural circulation loop with reference to flat-plate solar collectors”, Proceedings of the Seminar on Energy Conversation in Heating, Cooling and Ventilating Buildings, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 2, Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, D. C., USA, 795– 802 (August 1977).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    A. Sfeir, G. Menguy and S. Mujais, “A numerical model for a solar water heater”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Helio-technique and Development, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, 2, 38–52 (November 1975).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    B. Nimmo, W. Clark and J. Pearce, “Analytical and experimental study of thermosyphon solar water heaters”, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Orlando, Florida, USA, 4, 30–34 (June 1977).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    K. S. Ong, “A finite-difference method to evaluate the thermal performance of a solar water heater”, Solar Energy, 16, 137–147 (1974).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    K. S. Ong, “An improved computer program for the thermal performance of a solar water heater”, Solar Energy, 18, 183–191 (1976).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    G. L. Morrison and D. B. J. Eanatunga, “Transient response of thermosyphon solar collectors”, Solar Energy, 24, 55–61 (1980).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. D. Cardenas, “Unsteady natural convection of thermosyphon solar collectors”, Proceedings of Energex ′82, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, I/H, Solar Energy Society of Canada, 123–126 (August 1982).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    W. F. Phillips and R. A. Pate, “A hot liquid energy storage system utilizing natural circulation”, ASME Paper 74-WA/HT-16, (1973).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    W. F. Phillips and R. D. Cook, “Natural circulation from a flat-plate collector to a hot liquid storage tank”, ASME Paper 75-HT-53 (1975).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    J. W. Baughn and D. A. Dougherty, “Experimental investigation and computer modelling of a solar natural circulation system”, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society of the International Solar Energy Society, Orlando, Florida, USA, 4, 25–29 (June 1977).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    J. W. Baughn and D. A. Dougherty, “Effect of storage height on the performance of a natural circulation (thermosyphon) hot water system”, Proceedings of the Second National Passive Solar Conference, University of Pennsylvania, USA, 637– 641 (March 1978).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Y. Zvirin, A. Shitzer and G. Grossman, “The natural-circulation solar heater: Models with linear and non-linear temperature distributions”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 20, 997–999 (1977).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    G. L. Morrison and D. B. J. Ranatunga, “Thermosyphon circulation in solar collectors”, Solar Energy, 24, 191–198 (1980).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    H. L. Langhaar, “Steady flow in the transition length of a straight tube”, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 9, 55–58 (1942).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    B. J. Huang, “Similarity theory of a solar water-heater with natural circulation”, Solar Energy, 25, 105–116 (1980).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    M. Daneshyar, “Mean monthly performance of solar water-heaters with natural circulation”, Proceedings of the International Solar Society Silver Jubilee Congress, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 2, 983–987 (May 1979).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    J. A. Manrique, “Digital simulation of a solar water heating system under natural circulation conditions”, Proceedings of the Seminar on Energy Conservation in Heating, Cooling and Ventilating Buildings, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, D. C., USA, 2, 783–793 (August 1977).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    P. C. Lobo, “Solar collector performance without flow measurement”. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Alternative Energy Sources, Miami, Florida, USA, 1. 133–143 (December 1979).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Moult and J. M. Taylor, “Mathematical modelling of thermosyphon solar- heating systems”, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Future Energy Concepts, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, England, 40–43 (January 1981).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    N. Sasamori and T. Takasaka, “Simulation study of solar water heater”, Report of the Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technical Institute, 33–38 (1975). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    T. Jasinski and S. Buckley, “Thermosyphon analysis of a thermic diode solar heating system”, ASME Paper 77-WA/Sol 9 (1977).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Y. Meas, J. Quintana, A. Samano and A. Fernandez, “Black fluids: A new way to collect solar energy,” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 4, 281–284 (May 1981).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    W. L. Dutre, L. Cypers, J. Berghmans and A. Debosscher, “Hot-water production by means-of a solar thermosyphon loop”, Proceedings of the International Symposium - Workshop on Solar Energy, Cairo, Egypt, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK 2, 745–766 (June 1978).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    F. L. Stasa and K. D. Singh, “Computer programs development for the design and analysis of thermosyphon and forced-flow solar domestic hot water systems”, Solar Engineering - 1982, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference of the ASME Solar Energy Division, Ed. by W. D. Turner, ( April 1982 ).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    A. Mertol, W. Place, T. Webster and R. Greif, “Detailed loop model (DLM) analysis of liquid solar thermosyphons with heat exchangers”5, Solar Energy, 27 (5), 367–387 (1981).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    B. J. Huang and C. T. Hsieh, “A simulation method for solar thermosyphon collector”, Solar Energybf 35 (1), 31–43 (1985).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Z. P. Song and H. J. Zhang, “Prediction of system performance of solar water heaters for a specified locality”, Solar Energy, 28 (5) 433–441 (1982).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    M. F. Khahil, “Performance of solar flat plate collector”, Proceedings of the Solar Energy and Conservation Symposium, Miami, Florida, USA, 74–86 (December 1978).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    H. F. Creveling, J. F. Depaz, J. Y. Baladi and R. J. Schoenhals, “Stability characteristics of a single phase free convection loop”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 67, 65–84 (1975).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    A. J. Addlessee, “Frictional resistance of low Reynolds number flows established by heat transfer”, Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer, 7, 249–255 (1980).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    S. Kaizerman, E. Wacholder and E. Elias, “Stability and transient behaviour of a vertical toroidal thermosyphon”, ASME Paper 81-WA/HT-ll (1981).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    E. Wacholder, S. Kaizerman and E. Elias, “Numerical analysis of the stability and transient behaviour of natural-convection loops”, International Journal of Engineering Science, 20, 1235–1252 (1982).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    A. Mertol, R. Greif and Y. Zvirin, “Two-dimensional study of heat transfer and fluid flow in a natural convection loop”, ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, 104, 508–514 (1982).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    M. Seen and C. Trevino, “Dynamic analysis of a one-dimensional thermosyphon model”, Solar World Forum, Brighton, England, Paper SM/33 (August 1981).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    W. L. Borst, P. Sinha and J. L. Higginbotham. Higginbotham, “Experimental and theoretical studies on thermosyphon solar heat collectors”, Solar Engineering - 1982, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference of the ASME Solar Energy Division, Ed. by W. D. Turner, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA (April 1982).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    O. Oshihara, “Experimental study on the circulating-water rate measurement in a solar water heater (Part 2)”, Proceedings of the Society of Heating, Air Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 105–108 (October 1981). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    H. Heywood, “Solar energy: past, present and future applications”, Engineering, 176, 388–390 and 409–411 (1953).Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    H. Heywood, “Solar energy for water-and-space heating”, Journal of Institute of Fuel, 27, 334–352 (1954).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    C. F. Kettleborough, “Experimental results on thermostatically-controlled solar water heaters”, Solar Energy, 3, 55–58 (1959).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    G. J. Parker, “The performance of a solar water-heating system on a dwelling in Christchurch, New Zealand”, Solar Energy, 26, 187–197 (1981).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    M. L. Khanna, “The development of a solar water-heater and its field trials under Indian tropical conditions”, Solar Energy, 12, 255–261 (1968).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    M. Lilly white, C. Massie, C. Breitenstein, R. Coop and K. Boggs, “The performance of a 40-gallon solar thermosyphon water heater system at high altitudes”, Proceedings of the Second National Passive Solar Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 651 (March 1978).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    J. P. Gupta and R. K. Chopra, “Solar space heating at high altitude conditions”, Solar Energy, 18, 51–57 (1976).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    H. Norberg-Hodge, “Passive solar heating - improved living conditions for a high altitude population”, Appropriate Technology, 7 (7), 7–9 (1980).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    J. S. Van Wieringen, “Prospects for solar energy for providing low temperature heat”, Applied Energy, 7, 67–81 (1980).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    B. Lampcov, “Temperate climate effects on thermosyphon solar water heater productivity”, Proceedings of the Fifth National Passive Solar Conference, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 1066–1070 (October 1980).Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    C. J. Kelly, “Performance of two passive domestic hot-water systems”, Proceedings of the Sixth National Passive Solar Conference, Portland, Oregon, USA, 126–130 (September 1981).Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    ANON, “Solar energy system performance evaluation: Mei Wai Wong, Honolulu, Hawaii”, National Solar Data Program Report, Solar/1014/80/14, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., USA (1980).Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    S. Pallis, “Frost resistance of solar water-heating direct thermosyphons”, Sun at Work in Britain, 8, 34–40 (1979).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    O. Ishira, “Experimental study on the circulating water rate measurement in a solar water (Part 1)”, Proceedings of the Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers Conference, Osaka, Japan., 153–156 (October 1980). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    B. Norton and S. D. Probert, “Measured performances of natural-circulation solar-energy water heaters”, Applied Energy, 16, 1–26 (1984).Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    J. E. Braun arjd A. H. Fanney, “Design and evaluation of thermosyphon solar water-heating systems”, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Solar Energy Society, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 283–288 (June 1983).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    M. F. Young and J. B. Bergquam, “Performance characteristics of a thermosyphon solar domestic hot-water system”, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 103, 193–200 (1981).Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    A. I. Kudish and P. Santamaura, “A direct measurement of thermosyphon flow”, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Solar Energy Society, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 289–293 (June 1983).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    B. Norton and S. D. Probert, “Characteristics of thermosyphonic solar-energy water-heaters”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Energy Options — The Role of Alternatives in the World Energy Scene, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, England, 39–42 (April 1983).Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    H. Tabor, “A note on the thermosyphon solar hot-water heater”, Bulletin de Comples, IT, 33 (December 1969).Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    J. M. Gordon and Y. Zarmi, “Thermosyphon systems. Single vs. multi-pass”, Solar Energy, 27, 441–442 (1981).Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Y. F. Wang and Z. L. Lee, “A comparison between the “once-through” and the “thermosyphon” solar water-heaters and the calculation of their thermal efficiencies”, Atca Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2, 174 (1981). In Chinese.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Z. L. Li and X. L. Sun, “An experimental investigation of collector performance comparison between once-through and thermosyphon systems”, Proceedings of Symposium of the Chinese Solar Energy Society, Bejing, China (1981). In Chinese.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Y. F. Wang, Z. L. Li and X. L. Sun, “A “once-through” solar water-heating system”, Solar Energy, 29 (6), 541–547 (1982).Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    J. W. Baughn and K. Crowther, “An experimental study of storage elevation in a thermosyphon hot-water system”, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Denver, Colorado, 2, 32–35 (August 1978).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    B. Norton and S. D. Probert, “Optimising the design of natural-circulation solar-energy water-heaters”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Passive and Low-Energy Architecture, Crete, Greece, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 587–596 (June 1983).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    J. P. Welford, R. B. Lehman and P. I. Cooper, “The cost factors of auxiliary electricity supply to domestic solar water heaters”, A Joint Report of CIGRE Australian Panel 41 and the CSIRO Division of Mechanical Engineering, CSIRO Technical Report No. TR 30 (1981).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    P. I. Cooper and J. C. Lacey, “Evaluation of a household solar water heating system rating procedure using a reference system for performance comparison”, Solar Energy, 26, 213–222 (1981).Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    G. L. Morrison and C. M. Sapsford, “Performance of domestic solar water heaters”, Proceedings of the Conference of the Australian — New Zealand Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Sydney, Australia (November 1981).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    G. L. Morrison and C. M. Sapsford, “Long-term performance of thermosyphon solar water-heaters”, Solar Energy, 30 (4), 341–350 (1983).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    M. F. Young and J. B. Bergquam, “The performance of a thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system with hot-water withdrawal”, Solar Energy, 3, 655–658 (1984).Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    S. Pallis, “The solar bath-tap”, Solar Energy, 25, 531–536 (1980).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    L. Makkar and M. Ince, “Solar taps and solar monitoring”, Architects Journal, 170, 1103–1105 (1979).Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    L. Makker, “Solar assisted domestic hot water: The three tap system”, Solar World Forum, Brighton, England, Paper I/AI/10 (August 1981).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Y. Zvirin, A. Shitzer and A. Bartal-Borenstein, “On the stability of the natural- circulation solar heater”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Heat Transfer Conference, Toronto, Canada (1978).Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    A. Merton, R. Greif and Y. Zvirin, “The transient, steady-state and stability behaviour of a thermosyphon with throughflow”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 24, 621–633 (1981).Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    W. B. Veltkamp, “Optimisation of the mass flow in the heat distribution circuit of a solar heating system with a stratified storage”, Solar World Forum, Brighton, England, Paper I/A2/S3 (August 1981).Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    B. Norton and S. D. Probert, “Thermosyphonic water-heaters stimulated by renewable energy sources”, Applied Energy, 12, 237–242 (1982).Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    B. Norton and S. D. Probert, “Achieving thermal rectification in natural circulation solar-energy water-heaters”, Applied Energy, 14, 211–225 (1983).Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    H. Bird, “Compact-200 solar water heater”, Sunworld, 2, 81–82 (1978).Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    ANON, Sales Literature for Beasley Low Profile System, Beasley Pty Co., Adelaide, Australia (1984).Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    H. Iwata, A. Morie and T. Masuda, “Development of a thermosyphon solar water heater”, Technical Journal of the Matsushita Electric Works Ltd., 20, 43–49 (1980). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    F. Moore and P. Hemker, “A passive solar thermo-syphoning field-fabricated, water storage wall system”, Proceedings of the Fifth National Passive Solar Conference, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 1119–1122 (October 1980).Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    S. A. Stewart, “Solar heating for married quarters”, Royal Engineers Journal, TO, 68–83 (1954).Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    J. Geoffroy, “Use of solar energy for water-heating”, Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, Italy, 5 (2), 45–52 (August 1961).Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    S. Buckley, “Storage aspects of thermic-diode solar panels”, Proceedings of the Workshops on Solar Energy Storage Subsystems for the Heating and Cooling of Buildings, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA, 141–145 (April 1973).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    S. Buckley, “Thermic diode solar panels: Passive and modular”, Proceedings of the Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Conference, Alberquerque, New Mexico, USA, 293–299 (May 1976).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    S. Buckley, “Thermic diode solar panels for space heating”, Solar Energy, 20, 495–503 (1978).Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    J. Manzano, H. Khandani and S. Buckley, “Other aspects of thermic diode solar panels: Cooling and temperature control”, Proceedings of the Second National Passive Solar Conference, University of Pennsylvania, 2, 271–276 (March 1978).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    D. E. Bernard and S. Buckley, “Thermic-diode performance characteristics and design manual”, Proceedings of the International Solar Energy Society Silver Jubilee Congress, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 2, 1218–1222 (May 1979).Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    W. Mingenbach, “Strategies and consequences of reverse juice in passive system design concepts”, Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Conference and Workshop Proceedings, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 46–53 (May 1976).Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    ANON, Sales Literature for “Solar Economy” Thermosyphon Unit, Fieldway Limited, Hampshire, England (1982).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    ANON, Sales Literature for “KST 125” Kit-Form Solar Water Heater, SA Giordano, Vallauris, France (1982).Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    ANON, “Sales Literature for “Sola Hart” water heater”, SolaHart Pty, Perth, Australia (1982).Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    ANON, Sales Literature for “Calpak” Solar Water-Heater, Calpak B. P. Co., Kyra Vrisi, Corinth, Greece (1981).Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    M. Sokolov and M. Vaxman, “Analysis of an integral compact solar water-heater”, Solar Energy, 30, 237–246 (1983).Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    H. Andoh, “Natural-circulation solar water heater”, National Technical Report, 27 (3), 36–41 (1981).Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    J. M. Bradley, “The Development of a Freeze-Tolerant Solar Water Heater Using Cross-Linked Polyethylene as a Material of Construction”, Report COO/2959/8, Division of Solar Energy, Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, D.C., USA (1977).Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    A. H. Fanney and S. T. Liu, “Experimental system performance and comparison with computer predictions for six solar domestic hot-water systems”, Proceedings of the International Solar Energy Society Silver Jubilee Congress, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 2, 972–976 (May 1979).Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    F. DeWinter, “Heat-exchanger penalties in double-loop solar water heating systems”, Solar Energy, 17, 335–337 (1975).Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    J. Bogart, “An experimental evaluation of thermosyphon solar water-heaters with closed loop freeze protection”, Proceedings of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics International Meeting, “Global Technology 2000”, Baltimore, Maryland. USA, 1–10 (May 1980).Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    A. Mertol, W. Place, T. Webster and R. Greif, “Thermosyphon water heaters with heat exchangers”, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 309–313 (June 1980).Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    ANON, Data Sheets for “Syltherm-444”, Dow-Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan, USA, (1978).Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    ANON, Data Sheets for “ Therminol-44 ” Monsanto Industrial Chemicals Limited, St. Louis, Missouri, USA (1978).Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    J. Q. Searcy, “Hazardous Properties and Environmental Effects of Materials Used in Solar Heating and Cooling (SHAC) Technologies:” Interim Handbook, Report DOE/EV-0028, Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., USA (1978).Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    ANON, “Solar Heat Transport Fluids for Solar-Energy Collection Systems”, Report DOE/NASA/CR/150560, Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., USA (1978).Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    A. F. Orlando, D. Magnoli and L. Goldstein, “Thermosyphon solar water- heating system under Brasilian conditions”, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, California, USA, 2, 1628–1633 (August 1978).Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    A. F. Orlando, L. Goldstein and D. Magnoli, “Influence of heat exchanger effectiveness on the performance of thermosyphon double-loop water-heating system”, Proceedings of the International Symposium—Workshop on Solar Energy, Cairo, Egypt, 2, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 731–744 (June 1978).Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    ANON, Sales Literature for Sola Hart Model BOOL, SolaHart Pty. Co., Perth, Western Australia (1983).Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    B. Mena, D. Binding and A. Garcia-Rejon, The Use of Visco-Elastic Fluids in Solar-Energy Collectors, Cuidad Universitaria, Mexico City, Private Communication (1982).Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    D. Conn and S. D. Probert, “A low capital and running cost dwelling built by unskilled labour”, Applied Energy, 4, 143–149 (1980).Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    D. Oppenheim, Small Solar Buildings in Cool Northern Climates, Architectural Press, London, England (1981).Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    V. Richardson, “A truly cost-effective passive water-heater”, Proceedings of the Fifth National Passive Solar Conference, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA (October 1980).Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    J. F. Hogan, “Solar domestic hot-water in Seattle: The relative effects of collector tilt and orientation on annual performance”, Proceedings of the Sixth National Passive Solar Conference. Portland. Oregon, USA, 121–128 (September 1981).Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    D. Michaelis, “Passive and low energy design”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Crete, Greece, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 9–13 (June 1983).Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    D. Randle, K. Hobbs, J. Vickery, E. Doud, K. Noble and M. Ouellette, “Projects in Telluride”, Solar Architecture, Proceedings of the Energy Forum, Aspen, Colorado, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 198–199 (May 1979).Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    R. G. Flower, “An experimental study of six passive and three active solar water heaters installed in residences”, Proceedings of the Fifth National Passive Solar Conference, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 1076–1077 (October 1980).Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    D. Kelbaugh, “Heating water and other recent experiences in our greenhouse”, Proceedings of the Fifth National Passive Solar Conference, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, 1082–1086 (October 1980).Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    J. T. Czarnecki and W. R. W. Read, “Advances in solar water heating for domestic use in Australia”, Solar Energy, 20, 75–80 (1978).Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    J. B. Bergquam and J. W. Baughn, “A comparative study of solar hot water systems”, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Denver, Colorado, USA, 2 (1), 575–577 (1978).Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    J. B. Bergquam, M. F. Young and J. F. Baughn, “Comparative performance of passive and active solar domestic hot water systems”, Proceedings of the Fourth National Passive Solar Conference, Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 610–614 (October 1979).Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    G. N. Tiwari, V. S. V. Bapeshwana Rao and V. Ranjan, “Long term performance of large scale solar water heating systems: Forced circulation mode”, Energy Conservation and Management, 24, 33–42 (1984).Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    M. Golubov and J. Leffier, “THE THING — A direct gain solar hot water heater for New York City”, Proceedings of the Second National Passive Solar Conference, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 642–646 (March 1978).Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    R. Farrington, L. M. Murphy and D. Noreen, “An analysis of solar domestic hot water systems from a system perspective”, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 3 (1), 162–166 (June 1980).Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    A. H. Fanney and S. T. Liu, “Test results on hot water systems show effects of system design”, Solar Engineering, 25–29 (May 1980).Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Anon, Press Release, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado (1980).Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    R. Farrington, D. Noreen and L. M. Murphy, “A comparative analysis of six generic solar domestic hot water systems”, Proceedings of the Systems Simulation and Economic Analysis Conference, San Diego, California, USA, 131–136 (January 1980).Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    A. H. Fanney and S. A. Klein, “Performance of solar domestic hot water systems at the National Bureau of Standards — measurements and predictions”, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 105, 311–321 (1983).Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    M. F. Young and J. W. Baughn, “Economics of solar domestic hot-water heaters in California”, Proceedings of the Systems Simulation and Economic Analysis Conference, San Diego, California, USA, 610–614 (October 1979).Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    B. E. Western, R. F. Benseman and W. H. Robinson, “The saving from domestic solar water heaters”, New Zealand Energy Journal, 53 (7), 90–93 (1980).Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    J. Athoe, C. Beach and S. Gleman, “Cost effectiveness of solar dhw systems: Results of side-by-side tests of active and passive systems”, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 4 (1), 696–700 (May 1981).Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    M. Udagawa and S. Tanaka, “Prediction of town-house performance with hot water supply and heating by solar energy”, Proceedings of the Fifth Research Presentation Meeting of the Japanese Solar Energy Society, 5, 57–60 (1979). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    M. Udagawa, S. Tanaka and K. Ishida, “Operational experience of town houses with heating and hot water supply by solar energy”, Proceedings of the Sixth Research Presentation Meeting of the Japanese Solar Energy Society, 6, 121–124 (1980). In Japanese.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    P. Sansome and B. Riley, “Passive solar dhw performance with lower costs in freezing climates”, Proceedings of the Sixth National Passive Solar Conference, Portland, Oregon, USA, 6, 116–120 (September 1981).Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    F. Auer, “Performance of a solar water heater with thermosyphon circulation under central European climatic conditions”, Solar World Forum, Brighton, England, Paper 1/A1/7 (August 1981).Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    R. Uhlemann, “Solare Warmwassersysteme mit thermosiphonischem Fluss”, Wärmetechnik, 7, 298–306 (1984). In German.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    S. R. James and D. Proctor, “Evolution of a standard for evaluating the thermal performance of a domestic solar hot water system”, Proceedings of the International Solar Energy Society, Solar World Congress, Perth, Australia (August 1983).Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    A. H. Fanney, “An experimental technique for testing thermosyphon solar hot water systems”, ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 106, 457–464 (1984).Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    ANON, “Method of testing to determine the thermal performance of solar domestic water heating systems”, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 95-1981, ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle N. E., Atlanta, Georgia, USA (December 1981).Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    K. Crowther and B. Melzer, “The thermosyphoning cool pool: A natural cooling system”, Proceedings of the Third National Passive Solar Conference, San Jose, California, USA, 3, 448–451 (January 1979).Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    K. Crowther, “Cooling from an evaporating, thermosyphoning roof pond”, Proceedings of the Fourth National Passive Solar Conference, Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 409–503 (October 1979).Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    J. Hammond, “Cool Pool Development”, Quarterly Technical Report No. 3, U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, D. C., USA (September 1980).Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    F. Schmalzl, Standard long-range operating stations in shelters with integrated thermal-syphon system, Proceedings of Intelec ′79, International Telecommunications Energy Conference, Washington, D.C., USA (November 1979).Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    A. Ghiraldi, Private Communication, Divisione Sistemi Difesaf e Progettazioni, Milan, Italy (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Norton
  • S. D. Probert

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations