CT Scan and Neuropsychological Relationships in Aging and Dementia
Prior to the availability of CT scanning, the study of age-related and disease-related changes of the brain was primarily accomplished by two means: pneumoencephalography and autopsy. These techniques have serious limitations, particularly in relation to the study of normal aging and the early stages of dementia. With pneumoencephalography (PEG), the risk to the patient was such that the technique was limited only to cases where it could be clinically justified. This resulted in a heterogeneous database, especially in the older age ranges. Furthermore, artifacts associated with PEG raised questions about its reliability for measuring many of the cerebral changes of interest such as the size of the sulci and the size of the fissures. Information provided from autopsy is also limited in that it is based on the state of the brain just prior to death. Efforts to identify parameters of normal aging or markers of disease that might be diagnostically useful during life were therefore limited. With the advent of the CT scanner, many of these methodological and analytical problems could be avoided.
KeywordsAttenuation Dementia Hydrocephalus Paration Prep
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Albert, M., Naeser, M.A., Duffy, F.H., and McAnulty, G. (in press). CT and EEG validators: Alzheimer’s Disease. In L. Poon (Ed.), Handbook of memory assessment; proceedings of the George Talland Memorial Conference. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
- Albert, M., Stafford, J., Naeser, M.A., Heller, H., and Garvey, A.J. (in preparation). Age-related changes in brain fluid volume and neuropsychological test performance in optimally healthy individuals.Google Scholar
- Brinkman, S.D., Sarwar, M., Levin, H.S., and Morris, H.H. (1981). Quantitative indexes of computer tomography in dementia and normal aging. Neuroradiology, 138, 89–92.Google Scholar
- DeLeon, M.J., George, A.E., Ferris, S.H., Rosenbloom, S., Christman, D.R., Gentes, C.I., Reisberg, B., Kricheff, I.I., and Wolf, A.P. (1983). Regional correlation of PET and CT in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 4, 553–556.Google Scholar
- Hahn, F.J.Y., Rim, K., and Schapiro, R.L. (1977). A quantitative analysis of ventricular size on computed tomographic scans. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 1, 121–124.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, L., Kinkel, W.R., Painter, F., Murawski, J., and Heffner, Jr., R.R. (1978). Computerized tomography in dementia with special reference to changes in size of normal ventricles during aging and normal pressure hydrocephalus. In R. Katzman, R.D. Terry, and K.L. Bick (Eds.), Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
- Levi, C., Gray, J.E., McCullough, E.C., (1982). The unreliability of CT numbers as absolute values. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 139, 443–447.Google Scholar
- Sandor, T., Stafford, J., Hanlon, W., Albert, M., Evans, D., Scheer, P. Age-related changes in CT number (in preparation).Google Scholar
- Wilson, R.S., Fox, J.H., Huckman, M.S., Bacon, L.D., and Lobick, J.J. (1982). Computed Tomography in Dementia, 1054–1057.Google Scholar