Low Frequency Attenuation in the Arctic Ocean
The deep water abyssal plain regions of the Arctic Ocean are almost text book examples of acoustic propagation in a range independent ocean at low frequencies, if one could ignore the influence of the unique rough ice canopy. This can be seen by examining the empirically derived expression and plots of propagation loss versus range at several low acoustic frequencies shown in Fig 1, The term, α R, which is predominantly determined by the scattering of energy from the rough surfaces of the ice canopy was found to have an f(3/2) dependence on frequency and a magnitude which exceeds sea water absorption by two orders of magnitude.
KeywordsReflection Coefficient Arctic Ocean Liquid Layer Ocean Acoustics Kirchhoff Approximation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.H. Wysor Marsh, M. Schulkin, and S. G. Kneale, Scattering of Underwater Sound by the Sea Surface, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 33, Number 3, (March 1961).Google Scholar
- 2.E. Y. T. Kuo, Wave Scattering and Transmission at Irregular Surfaces, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 3, Number 11, (Nov., 1964 ).Google Scholar
- 3.F. G. Bass, I. M. Fuks, “ Wave Scatteringfrom Statistically Rough Surface”, Pergamon Press, New York, (1979).Google Scholar
- 4.Yu. P. Lysanov, Part IV, Scattering of Sound by Irregular Surfaces, from “Acoustics of the Ocean”, USSR Academy of Sciences, Acoustics Institute, Nauka Press, Moscow, 1974. NISC Translation No. 4048, (Oct., 1978 ).Google Scholar
- 7.L. M. Brekhovskikh, Yu, P. Lysanov, Chapt. IX in: Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics2”, Springer-Verlag, New York, (1982).Google Scholar
- 8.A. D. Lapin, Scattering of Sound by a Solid Layer with Rough Boundaries, translated form Akusticheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 12, No.,1.,(Jan.-Mar., 1966 ).Google Scholar
- 9.F. I. Kryazhev, V. M. Kudryashov, and N. A. Perov, Propagation of Low- frequency Sound Waves in a Wavequide with Irregular Boundaries, Sov. Phys. Acoust.,Vol. 22, No. 3, (May-Jun., 1979 ).Google Scholar
- 10.F. I. Kryazhev, and V. M. Kudryashov, Sound Field in a Waveguide with a Statistically Rough Admittance Boundary”, Sov. Phys. Acoust., Vol 30, No. 5, (Spt.-Oct., 1984 ).Google Scholar
- 11.F. R. DiNapoli, R. L. Deavenport, Theoretical and Numerical Green’s Function Field Solution in a Plane Multilayered Medium, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol 67(1), (Jan., 1980 ).Google Scholar