How To Make Quantum Mechanics Look Like A Hidden-Variable Theory and Vice Versa

  • Marlan O. Scully
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 135)


Conventional quantum mechanics is a superb calculational tool. It has successfully solved mysteries ranging from macroscopic superconductivity1(a) to the microscopic theory of the electron1(b) and has provided deeper insight into the nature of the vacuum1(c) on the one hand and the description of the nucleon1(d) on the other. Whole new fields2(a)−2(b) such as quantum optics and quantum electronics owe their very existence to this body of knowledge.


Quantum Mechanic Quantum Theory Hide Variable Quantum Distribution Polarization Correlation 
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  1. 1.
    (a) J. Bardeen, L. Cooper, and J. Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. 108, 1175 (1957); (b) P. Dirac, Quantum Mechanics (Oxford University, London, 1935); (c) W. Lamb and R. Retherford, Phys. Rev. 72, 241 (1947); (d) see, for example, K. Huang, Quarks, Leptons and Gauge Fields (World Scientific, Singapore, 1982).MathSciNetADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    (a) Quantum Optics and Electronics, 1964 Les Houches Lectures, edited by C. DeWitt, A. Blandin, and C. Cohen- Tannoudji (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1965); (b) M. Lax, in Brandeis University Summer Lectures, edited by M. Chretien, S. Deser, and E. Gross (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1966); (c) H. Haken, Handbuch Der Physik (Springer, Berlin, 1920), Vol. 25/2C; (d) W. H. Louisell, Quantum Statistical Properties of Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1973); (e) R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford University, London, 1973); (f) M. Sargent, M. Scully, and W. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, Phys. Rev. 47, 111 (1935). The present spin-y example is due to D. Bohm. In this regard B. Hiley quotes Dirac and FeynmanCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    F. Belinfante, A Survey of Hidden-Variable Theories (Pergamon, New York, 1973); J. Clauser and A. Shimony, Rep. Prog. Phys. 41, 1881 (1978).Google Scholar
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    J. Bell, Rev. Mod. Phys. 38, 447 (1966).ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    A good summary of experimental tests up to 1978 is given by Clauser and Shimony in Ref. 4. The recent work of Aspect is especially interesting in this regard, see A. Aspect, P. H. Grangier and G. Roger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 91 (1982).Google Scholar
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    B. Hiley, New Sci. 6, 17 (1983).Google Scholar
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    See, for example, the review article by M. Hillery, R. O’Connell, M. Scully, and E. Wigner (unpublished).Google Scholar
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    F. Belinfante, in Ref. 4, p. 13Google Scholar
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    F. Belinfante, in Ref. 4, p. 279.Google Scholar
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    In this context see especially E. Wigner, Am. J. Phys. 38» 1005 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See, for example, C. Cantrell and M. Scully, Phys. Rep. 43C, 499(1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    The work of Belinfante referred to here actually involves photon polarization correlations rather than the spin correlations which we deal with. However, the two problems are holo- morphic and we present here the arguments couched in spin- y language. We emphasize however the intellectual content of the arguments is credited to Belinfante. In fact we have even trial to use his phraseology where appropriate in order to remain faithful to his logic.Google Scholar
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    See especially R. Glauber, in Ref. 2(a) and L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 231 (1965).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    For a nice overview of the subject, see E. Hahn in NMR Grundlagen und Fortschritte (Springer, Berlin), Vol. 13.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Barut, P. Meystre, and M. Scully (unpublished).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marlan O. Scully
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für QuantenoptikGarching bei MünchenFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Center for Advanced StudiesUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

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