Gynecologic endoscopy had its origins in the early attempts to perform hysteroscopy by Pantaleone in 1867. Laparoscopy first appeared in the early twentieth century, and culdoscopy was developed by Decker around 1940. Historically, the utilization of hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, and culdoscopy relate to the comparative success of the equipment and techniques to overcome problems in the lighting, imaging, and distention of the cavities to be examined. Before the incandescent bulb, none of these procedures was very useful. With Edison’s contribution, laparoscopy was feasible, although lack of a satisfactory pneumoperitoneum hampered this procedure until Palmer’s work immediately after World War II. Culdoscopy, which used the knee-chest position, was an adequate substitute, as it could be performed with an incandescent bulb and did not require special pneumoperitoneum apparatus. Nevertheless, it was highly skill dependent and never gained widespread use.
KeywordsQuartz Dioxide Estrogen Rubber Diazepam
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