Advertisement

Three-Dimensional Computer Reconstructions of Catecholaminergic Neuronal Populations in Man

  • Dwight C. German
  • Brandy S. Walker
  • Kathy McDermott
  • Wade K. Smith
  • Daniel S. Schlusselberg
  • Donald J. Woodward
Part of the Wenner-Gren Center International Symposium Series book series (WGCISS, volume 42)

Abstract

Catecholamine-containing neurons have been found to subserve numerous functions (see reviews by Moore and Bloom, 1978, 1979; Mason, 1981). For example, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NF) containing cells in the hypothalamus regulate pituitary hormone output. The midbrain DA neurons of the substantia nigra (nucleus A9) which innervate the neostriatum, play a role in motor control and cell loss in this nucleus is pathognomonic for Parkinson’s disease. The ventral tegmental area DA neurons (nucleus A10), which innervate limbic and specific cortical regions (frontal, cingulate and entorhinal cortex) have been implicated in emotional regulation. Alteration of the receptors of these neurons is thought to be the mode of antipsychotic action for neuroleptic drugs. The locus coeruleus (LC) NF neurons, which diffusely innervate the entire cerebral cortex and spinal cord regions, have been hypothesized to play a role in arousal, attention and anxiety.

Keywords

Cell Density Locus Coeruleus Locus Coeruleus Neuron Spinal Cord Region Cerebral Aqueduct 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Dahlstrom, A. and Fuxe, K. (1964). Evidence for the existence of monoamine containing neurons in the central nervous system. I. Demonstration of monoamines in the cell bodies of brainstem neurons. Acta Physiol. Scand., 62, (Suppl. 232), 1–55.Google Scholar
  2. German, D.C., Schlusselberg, D.S., McMillen, B.A., McDermott, K., Smith, W.K. and Woodward, D.J. (1982). Asymmetries in human brain dopamine receptor binding: relationship to midbrain dopamine cell number. Neurosci. Abstracts, 8, 114.Google Scholar
  3. German, D.C., Schlusselbera, D.S. and Woodward, D.J. (1983). Three-dimensional computer reconstruction of midbrain dopaminergic neuronal populations: from mouse to man. J. Neural Trans., 57, 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Glick, S.D., Ross, D.A. and Hough, L.R. (1982). Lateral asymmetry of neurotransmitters in human brain. Brain Res., 234, 53–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Grace, A.A. and Bunney, B.S. (1983). Intracellular and extracellular electrophysiology of nigral dopaminergic neurons-3. Evidence for electrotonic coupling. Neurosci., 10, 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Graham, D.G. (1979). On the origin and significance of neuromelanin. Arch. Path. Lab. Med., 103, 359–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hassler, R. (1937). Zur normalanatomie der substantia nigra. J. Fur Psychologie und Neurologie, 48, 1–55.Google Scholar
  8. Mackay, A.V.P., Iversen, L.L., Rossor, M., Spokes, E., Bird, E., Arregui, A., Creese, I. and Snyder, S.H. (1982). Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 39, 991–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Mann, D.M.A. and Yates, P.O. (1983). Pathological basis for neurotransmitter changes in Parkinson’s disease. Neuropath. & Applied Neurobiol., 9, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mann, D.M.A., Yates, P.O. and Hawkes, J. (1983). The pathology of the human locus ceruleus. Clin. Neuropathol., 2, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Mason, S.T . (1981). Noradrenaline in the brain: progress in theories of behavioural function. Prog. in Neurol., 16, 263–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McGeer, P.L., McGeer, E.G. and Suzuki, J.S. (1977). Aging and extrapyramidal function. Arch. Neurol., 34, 33–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Moore, R.Y. and Bloom, F.E. (1978). Central catecholamine neuron systems: anatomy and physiology of the dopamine systems. Ann. Rev. Neurosci., 1, 1. 29–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moore, R.Y. and Bloom, F.F. (1979). Central catecholamine neuron systems: anatomy and physiology of the norepinephrine and epinephrine systems. Ann. Rev. Neurosci., 2, 113–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nobin, A. and Bjorklund, A. (1973). Topography of monoamine neurone systems in the human brain as revealed in foetuses. Acta Physiol. Scand., (Suppl. 388 ), 1–40.Google Scholar
  16. Oke, A., Keller, R., Mefford, I. and Adams, R.N. (1978). Lateralization of norepinephrine in human thalamus. Science, 200, 1411–1413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Olszewski, J. and Baxter, D. (1954). Cvtoarchitecture of the human brain stem. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  18. Pearson, J., Goldstein, M., Markeyf K. and Brandeis, L. (1983). Human brainstem catecholamine neuronal anatomy as indicated by immunocytochemistry with antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase. Neurosci.,8 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Saper, C.B. and Petito, C.K. (1982). Correspondence of melanin-pigmented neurons in human brain with A1–A14 catecholamine cell groups. Brain, 105, 87–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schlusselberg, D.S., Smith, W.K., Lewis, M.H., Culter, B.G. and Woodward, D.J. (1982). A general system for computer based acquisition, analysis and display of medical image data. Proc. ACM, 18–25.Google Scholar
  21. Tomlinson, B.E., Irving, D. and Blessed, G. (1981). Cell loss in the locus coeruleus in senile dementia of Alzheimer type. J. Neurolog. Sci., 49, 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ungerstedt, U. (1971). Stereotaxic mapping of the monoamine pathways in the rat brain. Acta Physiol. Scand., (Suppl. 367 ), 1–48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Wenner-Gren Centre 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dwight C. German
    • 1
    • 2
  • Brandy S. Walker
    • 1
  • Kathy McDermott
    • 1
  • Wade K. Smith
    • 3
  • Daniel S. Schlusselberg
    • 3
  • Donald J. Woodward
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of PhysiologyUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterDallasUSA
  2. 2.Departments of PsychiatryUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterDallasUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Cell BiologyUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations