Approaches to Risk Management

A Critique
  • Lester B. Lave
Part of the Contemporary Issues in Risk Analysis book series (CIRA, volume 1)


Many types of hazards confront individuals, families, communities, businesses, and nations. Individuals face immediate danger from accidents and acute disease. They face longer term danger in the form of chronic disease. Financial hazards loom in the form of unemployment, assets becoming worthless, large liabilities emerging, expenses for housing or children’s education, and the termination of earned income at retirement.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackerman, Bruce A. and William T. Hassler, Clean Coal, Dirty Air, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  2. American Bar Association, Federal Regulation: Roads to Reform, Final Report and Recommendations of the Commission on Law and the Economy, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. American Enterprise Institute, Government Regulation: Proposals for Procedural Reform, Washington, D.C.: AEI, 1979.Google Scholar
  4. American Medical Association, Risks of Nuclear Energy and Low-Level Ionizing Radiation, Chicago: AM A, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. Baram, Michael S., Alternatives to Regulation, Lexington: Lexington Books, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. Bartman, Thomas R., “Regulating Benzene,” in Lave (1982).Google Scholar
  7. Baumol, W., “On the Discount Rate for Public Projects,” in R. Haveman and J. Margolis (eds.), Public Expenditures and Public Analysis, Chicago: Markham, 1980.Google Scholar
  8. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Advisory Committee, The Effects of Populations of Exposures to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 1972 (and 1976 and 1980).Google Scholar
  9. Bloomgarden, Kathy, “Managing the Environment: The Public’s View,” Public Opinion, 6, 1983.Google Scholar
  10. Blomquist, Glenn C. and Samuel Peltzman, “An Economist’s View of Passive Restraints,” in Crandall and Lave.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, E. and A. Van Horn, Risk-Benefit Analysis and Public Policy: A Bibliography, Cambridge, Mass.: Energy and Environmental Center, Harvard University, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. Coase, R.H., “The Problem of Social Cost,” Journal of Law and Economics, 3,12 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crandall, R. and L. Lave (eds.), The Scientific Basis of Health and Safety Regulation, Washington D. C. ,: Brookings Institution, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. Crump, K., “Estimating Human Risks from Drug Feed Additives,” Office of Technology Assessment, 1979.Google Scholar
  15. DeMuth, C., “Constraining Regulatory Costs—Parts I and II,” Regulation, Vol. 4, 1 and 2, 1980.Google Scholar
  16. Denison, Edward F., Accounting for Slower Economic Growth, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. Douglas, Mary and Aaron Wildavsky, Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technical Environmental Dangers, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  18. Fischhoff, Baruch, Sarah Lichtenstein, Paul Slovic, Stephen L. Derby, and Ralph L. Keeney, Acceptable Risk, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  19. Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, S. Lichtenstein, S. Read, and B. Combs, “How Safe is Safe Enough?” Policy Sciences, 8, 1978.Google Scholar
  20. Food Safety Council, “Proposed System for Food Safety Assessment,” Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, 16, December 1978.Google Scholar
  21. Goldstein, Bernard D., “Hematoxicity in Humans,” in Sidney Laskin and Bernard D. Goldstein (eds.), Benzene Toxicity: A Critical Evaluation, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Supplement 2 (1977).Google Scholar
  22. Graham, John D. and Patricia Gorham, “NHTSA and Passive Restraints: A Case of Arbitrary and Capricious Deregulation,” Administrative Law Review, 1983.Google Scholar
  23. Green, L., “A Risk/Risk Analysis of Nitrite,” Working Paper, Department of Nutritional Food Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1978.Google Scholar
  24. Grobstein, Clifford, “A Scientist’s View of Saccharin,” in Crandall and Lave.Google Scholar
  25. Hitch, C. and R. McKean, The Economics of Defense in the Nuclear Age, New York: Atheneum, 1965.Google Scholar
  26. Hoel, D., “Statistical Models for Estimating Carcinogenic Risks from Animal Data,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Environmental Toxicology, Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1974.Google Scholar
  27. Huelke, Donald F. and James O’Day, “A Scientific’s View of Passive Restraints,” in Crandall and Lave.Google Scholar
  28. Hutt, P., “Food Regulation,” Food-Drug-Cosmetic Law Journal, 33, October 1978.Google Scholar
  29. Industrial Union Dept., AFL-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute, 448, U.S. 607, 1980. Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group, “Scientific Bases for Identifying Potential Carcinogens and Estimating Their Risks,” Unpublished report, Washington, D.C., 1980.Google Scholar
  30. IRLG, “Scientific Bases for Identifying Potential Carcinogens and Estimating Their Risks,” Report of the Inter- Agency Liaison Regulatory Group, in L. Breslow, J. Fielding, and L. Lave (eds.), Annual Review of Public Health, 1, Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews, 1980.Google Scholar
  31. Keeney, Ralph L., “A Decision Analysis with Multiple Objectives: The Mexico City Airport,” Bell Journal of Economics and Management, 4, 101–117, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lave, Lester B., The Strategy of Social Regulation, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1981a.Google Scholar
  33. Lave, Lester B., “Economic Implications of Shifting from Federal Regulation to Its Alternatives.” Working paper, 1981b.Google Scholar
  34. Lave, Lester B., Quantitative Risk Assessment in Regulation, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1982.Google Scholar
  35. Lave, Lester B. and Gilbert S. Omenn, Cleaning the Air, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1981.Google Scholar
  36. Lave, L.B. and T. Romer, “Specifying Risk Goals: Luherent Problem with Democratic Institutions” Risk Analysis, 3, 1983.Google Scholar
  37. Lave, L.B., G.S. Omenn, K.D. Heffernan, and G. Dranoff, “A Model for Selecting Short-Term Tests of Carcinogenicity,” Journal of the American College of Toxicology, 2, 1983.Google Scholar
  38. Linnerooth, J. “The Value of Human Life: A Review of the Models,” Economic Inquiry, Vol. XVII, January 1979.Google Scholar
  39. Marcus, G., “A Review of Risk Assessment Methodologies,” Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, Serial B, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1983.Google Scholar
  40. Marnicio, Ronald J., “Regulation of Ionizing Radiation,” in Lave (1982).Google Scholar
  41. Merrill, Richard A., “Regulating Carcinogens in Food: A Legislator’s Guide to the Food Safety Provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,” Michigan Law Review, 77, December 1978.Google Scholar
  42. Merrill, Richard A., “Regulation of Toxic Chemicals,” Texas Law Review, 58, February 1980.Google Scholar
  43. Merrill, Richard A., “A Regulator’s View of Saccharin,” in Crandall and Lave.Google Scholar
  44. Mishan, E.J., Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Informal Introduction, New York: Praeger, 1976.Google Scholar
  45. Nash, Carl E., “A Regulator’s View of Passive Restraints,” in Crandall and Lave.Google Scholar
  46. National Academy of Engineering, Product Safety, Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, 1972.Google Scholar
  47. National Academy of Sciences, Committee for a Study on Saccharin and Food Safety Policy, Food Safety Policy: Scientific and Societal Considerations, Washington, D.C.: NAS, 1978.Google Scholar
  48. National Academy of Sciences, Committee for a Study on Saccharin and Food Safety Policy, Saccharin: Technical Assessment of Risks and Benefits, Washington, D.C.: NAS, 1979.Google Scholar
  49. Okrent, D. “Comments on Societal Risk,” Science, 208, April 25, 1980.Google Scholar
  50. Omenn, Gilbert S. and Robert D. Friedman, “Individual Differences in Susceptibility and Regulation of Environmental Hazards,” Staff paper, Office of Science and Technology Policy, 1980.Google Scholar
  51. Prest, A. and R. Turvey, “Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Survey,” in American Economic Association and Royal Economic Association, Survey of Economic Theory, Vol. Ill, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  52. Raiffa, Howard, Decision Analysis, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1968.Google Scholar
  53. Ruff, L., “Federal Environmental Regulation,” in Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, Study on Federal Regulation, Vol. VI, December 1978.Google Scholar
  54. Schelling, T.C., “The Life You Save May Be Your Own,” in Samuel B. Chase (ed.), Problems in Public Expenditure Analysis, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1968.Google Scholar
  55. Starr, C., “Social Benefits versus Technological Risk,” Science, 165, 1969.Google Scholar
  56. Stokey, Edith and Richard Zeckhauser, A Primer for Policy Analysis, New York: Norton, 1978.Google Scholar
  57. Transportation Research Board, Transportation of Hazardous Materials, Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1983.Google Scholar
  58. U.S. Congress, House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Federal Regulation and Regulatory Reform, Report. 94 Cong. 2 sess. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976.Google Scholar
  59. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, “Assessment of Estimated Risk Resulting from Aflatoxin in Consumer Peanut Products and Other Food Contaminants,” FDA, January 1978.Google Scholar
  60. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Assessment of Health Effects of Benzene Germane to Low Level Exposure, Research Triangle Park, N.C.: EPA, 1978.Google Scholar
  61. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants, NUREG-0880, Washington, D.C., 1982.Google Scholar
  62. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, Cancer Testing Technology and Saccharin, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1977.Google Scholar
  63. Approaches to Risk Management: A Critique.Google Scholar
  64. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, The Implications of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Medical Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, No. 052–003–00765–7, 1980.Google Scholar
  65. Viscusi, W. Kip, Risk by Choice, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard, 1983.Google Scholar
  66. White, Mary C., Peter F. Infante, and Kenneth C. Chu, “A Quantitative Estimate of Leukemia Mortality Associated with Occupational Exposure to Benzene,” Risk Analysis, 2, 1982.Google Scholar
  67. Wildavsky, Aaron, “No Risk Is the Highest Risk of All,” American Scientist, 67, 1979.Google Scholar
  68. Williamson, Oliver E., “An Economist’s View of Saccharin,” in Crandall and Lave.Google Scholar
  69. Wilson, J., “The Politics of Regulation,” in J. McKie (ed.), The Social Responsibility, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1974.Google Scholar
  70. Wilson, J. (ed.), The Politics of Regulation, New York: Basic Books, 1980.Google Scholar
  71. Zeckhauser, R. and A. Nichols, “The Occupational Safety and Health Administration—An Overview,” in Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, Study on Federal Regulation, Vol. VI, December 1978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lester B. Lave
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of of Industrial AdministrationCarnegie-Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations