The first experimental observations of the existence of what is now known as the mixed state of type-II superconductors took place almost simultaneously (1934–1935) in Oxford, Leiden, and Kharkov [Men64]. The observed magnetic irreversibility of these materials precluded at the time a thermodynamic description of their properties, and they were known as “non-ideal” superconductors. The residual magnetization represented by the magnetic irreversibility was reminiscent of magnetic coercivity and led to their being characterized as “hard” superconductors.


Critical Current Density Pickup Coil Critical State Model Infinite Cylinder Local Induction 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. W. Collings
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials DepartmentBattelle Memorial InstituteColumbusUSA

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