Steroid Receptors in Breast Cancer: Kuwait Experience

  • Hussain Al-Jazzaf
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 51)


The impetus given to modern oncology by the development of estrogen (Er) and progesterone (Pr) receptor assays in primary breast cancers has resulted in considerable progress in our understanding of endocrine manipulation. However some 30 percent-40 percent of Er (+) Pr (+) patients fail to respond to endocrine therapy. This may be due to the heterogeneity of tumor cell populations, the role of other hormones in growth regulation, as well as possible defects in estrogen-progesterone action on breast cancer, and variation in the interpretation of assays and clinical problems in evaluation of the tumor response. This study summarizes Kuwait Cancer Control Center (K.C.C.C.) experience, and is a current summary of our ongoing study of Er/Pr receptor assessment correlated with histologic analysis of primary and metastatic cancer and their response to treatment.


Breast Cancer Primary Breast Cancer Tumor Cell Population Strong Positivity Endocrine Manipulation 
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© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hussain Al-Jazzaf

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