Force-Interval Relationship and Activator Calcium Availability: Similarities of Sympathetic Stimulation and Hypertrophy and Heart Failure

  • Page A. W. Anderson
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 62)


The properties of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and sarcolemma, which are important in the control of cytosolic calcium [1–9], are among the many aspects of the myocardium that are affected by hypertrophy and heart failure. In this chapter, the effects of disease on the modulation of activator calcium are examined by means of the “force-interval relationship,” which expresses the dependence of the force of contraction on the temporal pattern of stimulation [10].


Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Papillary Muscle Activator Calcium Sympathomimetic Agent Restitution Curve 
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