Distribution and Influence of Minor Constituents on Ceramic Formulations
Small amounts of dopants are essential ingredients added to many ceramic compositions to obtain improved processing or properties. In addition, it is extremely difficult to manufacture ceramics free from contaminants such as calcia and silica, which are among the most common constituents of the earth’s surface. These minor constituents may be present in the final ceramic as solid solutions in a major phase, as segregants at the grain boundaries and surfaces, in an extended space charge layer adjacent to grain boundaries or surfaces, or as separate amorphous or crystalline phases at the surface, at grain boundaries, or within a bulk phase. Each of these distributions can have a strong influence on ceramic processing and on the properties of ceramic products.
KeywordsMinor Constituent Impurity Content Boundary Segregation Solute Segregation Ceramic Processing
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