Advertisement

Control of Blood Pressure by Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors in the Ventrolateral Medulla

  • Hreday N. Sapru
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 31)

Abstract

Nicotine, one of the most widely used drugs in human society, has been implicated as a risk factor in many cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which nicotine evokes cardiovascular responses are not clear. This lack of information may be partially attributed to our incomplete understanding of cardiovascular actions of this substance even under normal physiological conditions. The results of several investigators indicate that the effects of nicotine on cardiovascular function are variable. Our results indicate that the cardiovascular actions of nicotine may be variable because it evokes different responses from different regions of the brain. For example, it induces an increase and decrease in blood pressure when microinjected into the pressor and depressor areas of the ventrolateral medulla, respectively. Heart rate and resistance in major vascular beds are increased when nicotine is microinjected into the pressor area. Opposite effects on these parameters are observed when it is microinjected into the depressor area. Other investigators have shown that nicotine induces depressor and bradycardic effects when microinjected into the dorsal medulla. Thus, the net effect of nicotine on cardiovascular function depends on the accessibility of different cardiovascular neuronal pools to sufficient concentration of this substance. Specific brain cholinergic nicotinic receptors and the sympathetic nervous system are involved in these actions of nicotine. The cardiovascular actions of nicotine are comparable to those evoked by other cholinergic agonists such as carbachol and physostigmine.

Keywords

Mean Arterial Pressure Sympathetic Nerve Activity Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Pressor Area Ventrolateral Medulla 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Surgeon General: Smoking and health. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, publication no. (PHS) 79-50066, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schievelbein, H: Nicotine resorption and fate. In (ed.) Balfour, DJK, International encyclopedia of pharmacology and therapeutics, section 114, Nicotine and the smoking habit, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 1–15, 1984.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Koch, A, Hoffmann, K, Steck, W, Horsch, A, Hengen, N, Morl, H, Harenberg, J, Spohr, U and Weber, E: Acute cardiovascular reactions after cigarette smoking. Atherosclerosis 35: 67–75, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Armitage, AK: Blood levels of nicotine and cotinine attained during smoking. In: The workshop on nicotine, Nov. 11–13, 1974, Stockholm,Sweden.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kubo, T and Misu, Y: Changes in arterial blood pressure after microinjections of nicotine into the dorsal area of medulla oblongata of the rat. Neuropharmacology 20: 521–524, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schaeppi, U: Effects of nicotine administration to the cat’s lower brainstem upon electroencephalogram and autonomic nervous system. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 142: 40–49, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cozine, RA and Ngai, SH: Medullary surface chemoreceptors and regulation of respiration in the cat. J. Appl. Physiol. 22: 117–121, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Armitage, AK and Hall, GH: Effects of nicotine on systemic blood pressure when injected into the cerebral ventricles of cats. Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 6: 143–149, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pradhan, SN, BhattacTiarya, IC and Atkinson, KS: The effects of intraventricular administration of nicotine on blood pressure and some somatic reflexes. Ann. N.Y. Acad, Sci. 142: 50–66, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCarthy, LE and Borison, HL: Separation of effects of CO2 and nicotine on ventilation and blood pressure. Resp. Physiol. 15: 321–330, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feldberg, W and Guertzenstein, PG: Vasodepressor effects obtained by drugs acting on the ventral surface of the brainstem. J. Physiol. (Lond) 258: 337–355, 1976.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dev, NB, and Loeschcke, HH: Topography of the respiratory and circulatory responses to acetylcholine and nicotine on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata. Pflugers Arch. 379: 19–27, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ahmed, SS, Moschos, CB, Lyons, MM, Oldewurtel, HA, Columbus, RJ and Regan, TJ: Cardiovascular effects of long-term cigarette smoking and nicotine administration. Am.J. Cardiol. 37: 33–40, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lang, WJ, and Rush, ML: Cardiovascular responses to injections of cholinomimetic drugs into the cerebral ventricles of unanesthetized dogs. Brit. J. Pharmac. 47: 196–205, 1973.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Domino, E.F. A role of the central nervous system in the cardiovascular actions of nicotine. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 179: 169–179, 1969.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brezenoff, HE and Giuliano, R: Cardiovascular control by cholinergic mechanisms in the central nervous system. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22: 341–381, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sapru, HN and Krieger, AJ: Procedure for the decerebration of the rat. Brain Res. Bull., 3: 675–679, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sapru, HN, Willette, RN and Krieger, AJ: Stimulation of pulmonary J receptors by an enkephalin-analog. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 217: 228–234, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Merlis, JK: The effect of changes in the calcium content of the cerebrospinal fluid on spinal reflex activity in the dog. Am. J. Physiol. 131: 67–72, 1940.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Paxinos, G and Watson, C: The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates. Academic Press: New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sapru, HN, Gonzales, ER and Krieger, AJ: Greater splanchnic nerve activity in the rat. Brain Res. Bull., 8: 267–272, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haywood, JR, Schaffer, RA, Fastenow, C, Fink, GD and Brody, MJ: Regional blood flow measurements with pulsed Doppler flow-meter in conscious rat. Am. J. Physiol. 241: H273–278, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Croxton, FE: Elementary statistics with applications in medicine and biological sciences. New York: Dover Publications pp. 235–239, 1959.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zar, JH: Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall: Englewood, NJ, pp. 151–155, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Willette, RN, Barcas, PP, Drieger, AJ and Sapru, HN: Vasopressor and depressor areas in the rat medulla. Neuropharmacology, 22: 1971–1079, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang, SC and Ranson, SW: Autonomic responses to electrical stimulation of the lower brainstem. J. Comp. Neurol. 71: 437–455, 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Alexander, RS: Tonic and reflex functions of medullary sympathetic cardiovascular centers. J. Neurophysiol. 9: 205–217, 1946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Galosy, RA and Clarke, LS: Neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of cardiovascular regulation and stress. Neuroscience and Biobehav. Rev. 5: 137–175, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spyer, KM: Neural organization and control of the baroreceptor reflex. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. and Pharmcaol. 88: 23–125, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Calaresu, FR, Faiers, AA, and Mogenson, GJ: Central neural regulation of heart and blood vessels in mammals. Prog. Neurobiol. 5: 1–35,1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang, SC: Physiology and Pharmacology of the Brain Stem. Futura Publishing Co., New York, pp. 5–80, 1980.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Krnjevic, K. and Phillis, JW: Iontophoretic studies of neurons in mammalian cerebral cortex. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 165: 274–304, 1963.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reis, DJ: The brain and hypertension: reflections on 35 years of inquiry into the neurobiology of the circulation. Circulation 70: (III-31)-(III–45), 1984.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reis, DJ, Ross, CA, Ruggiero, DA, Granata, AR, and Joh, TH: Role of adrenaline neurons of ventrolateral medulla (the C1 group) in the tonic and phasic control of arterial pressure. In (ed.) Slater, IH, Clinical and experimental hypertension, A6: 221–241, 1984.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dampney, RAL, Goodchild, AK and Tan, E: Identification of cardiovascular cell groups in the brain stem. In (ed.) Slater, IH, Clinical and experimental hypertension, A6: 203–220, 1984.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Blessing, WW, Sved, AF and Reis, DJ: Arterial pressure and plasma vasopressin: regulation by neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla of the rabbit. In (ed.) Slater, IH, Clinical and experimental hypertension, A6: 149–156, 1984.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Willenberg, IM, Dermietzel, R, Leibstein, AG and Effenberger, M: Mapping of cholinoceptive (nicotinoceptive) neurons in the lower brainstem: with special reference to the ventral surface of the medulla. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 14: 287–298, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kimura, H, McGeer, PL, and Peng, JH: Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the rat brain. In (ed.) Bjorklund, Hokfelt, T and Kuhar, MJ. Handbook of chemical neuroanatomy, Vol. 3, Elsevier, New York, pp. 51–67, 1984.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Willette, RN, Punnen, S, Krieger, AJ, and Sapru, HN: Cardiovascular control by cholinergic mechanisms in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 231: 475–463, 1984.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Remond, A, and Izard, D: Electrophysiological effects of nicotine, Elsevier, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Willette, RN, Krieger, AJ, Barcas, PP and Sapru, HN: Medullary gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors and the regulation of blood pressure in the rat. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 226: 893–899, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Willette, RN, Barcas, PP, Krieger, AJ, and Sapru, HN: Endogenous GABAergic mechanisms in the ventrolateral medulla and the regulation of blood pressure. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 230: 34–39, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Willette, RN, Punnen, S, Krieger, AJ, and Sapru, HN: Hypertensive response following opiate receptor stimulation in the caudal ventrolateral medulla. Neuropharmacology, 23: 401–406, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Punnen, S, Willette, RN, Krieger, AJ, and Sapru, HN: Cardiovascular response to enkephalin microinjections in the pressor area of the ventrolateral medulla. Neuropharmacology, 23:939–946, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Punnen, S, and Sapru, HN: Blockade of cholinergic receptors in C1 area abolishes hypertensive response to opiates in the Al area of the ventrolateral medulla. Brain Res. 336: 180–186, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Willette, RN, Punnen, S, Krieger, AJ, and Sapru, HN: Interdependence of rostral and caudal ventrolateral medullary areas in the control of blood pressure. Brain Res. 321: 169–174, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Amendt, K, Czachurski, J, Dembowsky, K, and Seller, H: Bulbospinal projections to the intermedialateral cell column; a neuroanatomical study. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 1: 103–117, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ross, CA, Ruggiero, DA, Park, DH, Joh, TH, Sved, AF, Fernandez-Pardal, J, Saavedra, JM and Reis, DJ: Tonic vasomotor control by the rostral ventrolateral medulla: effect of electrical or chemical stimulation of the area containing C1 adrenergic neurons on arterial pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines and vasopressin. J. Neurosci. 4: 474–494–1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bradley, PB and Wolstencroft, JH: Effects of acetylcholine, nicotine and muscarine on brainstem neurons. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 142: 15–20, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hreday N. Sapru
    • 1
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterans Administration Medical CenterEast OrangeUSA

Personalised recommendations