Intracranial Self-Stimulation Studies with Nicotine

  • Paul B. S. Clarke
  • R. Kumar
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 31)


More than thirty years ago James Olds and Peter Milner (1954) fortuitously observed that a rat would return to the place in an open field where it had previously received electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) delivered via a septal electrode. Subsequently, it was found that rats and many other species including man would learn to perform arbitrarily assigned tasks in order to obtain electrical stimulation at certain sites in the brain (see Olds, 1977). This behavior, termed “self-stimulation” or “intracranial self-stimulation” (ICSS), appeared to offer a direct handle on putative systems in the brain responsible for pleasure or reward.


Brain Stimulation Chronic Nicotine Stimulant Action Medial Forebrain Bundle Psychomotor Stimulant 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul B. S. Clarke
    • 1
  • R. Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research Dept. of PsychiatryUniv. of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Dept. of Psychiatry Institute of PsychiatryUniv. of LondonLondonEngland

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