Atomic Force Microscopy: General Principles and a New Implementation
Recently, Binnig, Quate, and Gerber developed the atomic force microscope (AFM), an instrument which senses minute (10-12 – 10-8 N) forces between a sharp tip and a sample surface , In addition to enabling the study of solid-solid interactions on a unprecedentedly small scale, the AFM provides a general method for doing non-destructive surface profilometry at a resolution better than 10 nm and perhaps down to the atomic level. In this paper we review the principles of the AFM, discuss its potential resolution and data rate, describe our new AFM design, and present some initial results. We have obtained three dimensional surface profiles with 20 nm lateral resolution, which to our knowledge is better than what has been attained previously by stylus profilometry.
KeywordsGraphite Helium Rubber Tungsten Lution
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.G. Binnig and H. Rohrer, IBM J. Res. and Develop. 30, 355 (1986).Google Scholar
- 4.U. Dürig, J. K. Gimzewski, and D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Letts., to be published.Google Scholar
- 10.See, for example, R. G. Horn and J. N. Israelachvili, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1400 (1981).Google Scholar
- 11.A. W. Adamson, “Physical Chemistry of Surfaces,” Wiley, New York (1976).Google Scholar
- 11a.J. N. Israelachvili, “Intermolecular and Surface Forces,” Academic Press, London (1985).Google Scholar
- 12.G. M. McClelland, to be published.Google Scholar
- 14.S. Chiang and R. J. Wilson, IBM J. Res. and Develop. 30, Sept. (1986).Google Scholar
- 16.R. Gomer, “Field Emission and Field Ionization,” Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1961).Google Scholar
- 16a.E. W. Müller and T. T. Tsong, “Field Ion Microscopy, Principles and Applications,” Elsevier, New York (1969).Google Scholar
- 19.E. C. Teague, “Room Temperature Gold-Vacuum-Gold Tunneling Experiments,” University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1978).Google Scholar
- 20a.R. J. Wilson and S. Chiang, to be published.Google Scholar