The hepatorenal syndrome can be defined as unexplained renal failure in patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in the absence of clinical or laboratory evidence of other causes of renal failure. The clinical features of hepatorenal syndrome include severe or advanced liver disease associated with jaundice, ascites, and often encephalopathy and rapid renal failure. This renal failure develops without any apparent precipitating events, such as dehydration or sepsis, and is characterized by a progressive, relentless oliguria. The oliguria and azotemia are not amenable to any known manipulation and thus are usually irreversible. Patients slowly lapse into coma, with hypotension and hypothermia, and die.1–3
KeywordsSerum Bilirubin Tubule Cell Urinary Sodium Urinary Osmolality Transmission Electron Micro
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