Faith and Foraging: A Critique of the “Paradigm Argument from Design”

  • Russell D. Gray

Abstract

The idea that organisms are exquisitely designed to fit their environment is a legacy from a static and teleological world view that has a lengthy history in western thought (see Pirlot & Bernier 1973, Bernier & Pirlot 1977, Lewontin 1980, Krimbas 1984). It is a tradition that includes Aristotle, the Stoics, St. Thomas Aquinas, and the Natural Theologians. For these writers optimal design was evidence for the existence of various forms of an intelligent creator. This argument for the existence of a creator has become known as the “argument from design.” In its modern guise, the idea of design can be found in the Darwinian concept of adaptation. Darwin rejected God as an explanation of an organism-environment fit but accepted that such a fit existed (see Ospovat 1981).1 Drawing implicitly from Hobbes and Adam Smith, and explicitly from the Natural Theologians and Malthus, he proposed natural selection as a mechanism to explain this fit. In this manner, mechanism was wedded to teleology and Aristotle’s final causes were transformed into today’s “ultimate” or evolutionary causes.2 Mayr (1982, p. 521) asserts that this legitimization of “why questions” was the most important departure in Darwin’s methodology.

Keywords

Mold Respiration Assimilation Sewage Straw 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe, M., and Iriki, T. 1978. Effects of diet on the protozoa populations in continuous culture of rumen contents. British Journal of Nutrition, 39: 255–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrams, P.A. 1982. Functional responses of optimal foragers. American Naturalist, 120: 382–390.Google Scholar
  3. Abrams, P.A. 1984. Foraging time optimization and interactions in food webs. American Naturalist, 124: 80–96.Google Scholar
  4. Abramsky, Z. 1983. Experiments on seed predation by rodents and ants in the Israeli desert. Oecologia, 57: 328–332.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmad, S. 1983. Mixed-function oxidase activity in a generalist herbivore in relation to its biology, food plans and feeding history. Ecology, 64: 235–243.Google Scholar
  6. Alberch, P. 1980. Ontogenesis and morphological diversification. American Zoologist, 20: 653–667.Google Scholar
  7. Alberch, P. 1982. Developmental constraints in evolutionary processes. In: Evolution and Development (ed. by J.T. Bonner ), pp. 313–332. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, West Germany.Google Scholar
  8. Alexander, R. McN. 1980. Optimum walking techniques for quadrupeds are bipeds. Journal of Zoology, London, 192: 97–117.Google Scholar
  9. Alexander, R. McN. 1982. Optima for Animals. Edward Arnold, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  10. Al-Jaborae, F.F. 1979. The Influence of Diet on the Gut Morphology of the Starling (Sturnus vulgaris L. 1758 ). Ph.D. thesis, Oxford University.Google Scholar
  11. Allen, P.L. 1983. Feeding behaviour of Asterias rubens (L.) on soft bottom bivalves: a study in selective predation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 70: 79–90.Google Scholar
  12. Alphen, J.J.M. van, and Galis, F. 1983. Patch time allocation and parasitization efficiency of Asobara tabida, a larval parasitoid of Drosphila. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 937–952.Google Scholar
  13. Altman, S.A. 1984. What is the dual of the energy-maximization problem? American Naturalist, 123: 433–441.Google Scholar
  14. Altman, S.A., and Wagner, S.S. 1978. A general model of optimal diet. Recent Advances in Primatology, 1: 407–414.Google Scholar
  15. Anderson, O. 1984. Optimal foraging by largemouth bass in structured environments. Ecology, 65: 851–861.Google Scholar
  16. Andersson, M. 1978. Optimal foraging area: Size and allocation of search effort. Theoretical Population Biology, 13: 397–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Andersson, M. 1981a. Central place foraging in the whinchat, Saxicola rubetra. Ecology, 62: 538–544.Google Scholar
  18. Andersson, M. 1981b. On optimal predator search. Theoretical Population Biology, 19: 58–86.Google Scholar
  19. Aronson, R.B., and Givnish, T.J. 1983. Optimal central-place foragers: A comparison with null hypotheses. Ecology, 64: 395–399.Google Scholar
  20. Arnold, G.W., and Mailer, R.A. 1977. Effects of nutritional experience in early and adult life on the performance and dieting habits of sheep. Applied Animal Ethology, 3: 5–26.Google Scholar
  21. Ballinger, R.E. 1977. Reproductive strategies: food availability as a source of proximal variation in a lizard. Ecology, 58: 628–635.Google Scholar
  22. Barash, D.P. 1982. Sociobiology and Behaviour. Second edition. Hodder and Stoughton. London, U.K.Google Scholar
  23. Barnard, C.J., and Brown, C.A.J. 1981. Prey size selection and competition in the Common Shrew (Sorex areneus L.). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 8: 239–243.Google Scholar
  24. Barnard, C.J., and Stephens, H. 1981. Prey size selection by lapwings in lapwing-gull associations. Behaviour, 77: 1–22.Google Scholar
  25. Bateson, P.P.G. 1976. Rules and reciprocity in behavioural development. In: Growing Points in Ethology (ed. by P.P.G. Bateson & R.A. Hinde ), pp. 401–421. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  26. Bateson, P. 1983. Genes, environment and the development of behaviour. In: Animal Behaviour, Volume Genes, Development and Learning (ed. by T.R. Halliday & P.J.B. Slater ), pp. 52–81. Blackwell, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  27. Bateson, P. In press. Functional approaches to behavioural development. Proceedings of the International Primatological Congress.Google Scholar
  28. Baum, W.M. 1972. Choice in a continuous procedure. Psychonomic Science, 28: 263–265.Google Scholar
  29. Baum, W.M. 1974a. On two types of deviation from the matching law: bias and undematching. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, 22: 231–242.Google Scholar
  30. Baum, W.M. 1974b. Choice in free-ranging wild pigeons. Science, 185: 78–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Baum, W.M. 1979. Matching, unde matching, and ovematching in studies of choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 32: 269–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Baum, W.M. 1982. Instrumental behavior and foraging in the wild. In: Quantitative Analyses of Behavior, Vol. 2: Matching and Maximizing Accounts (ed. by M.L. Commons, R.J. Herrnstein, & H. Rachlin ), pp. 227–240 M. Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  33. Baum, W.M. 1983. Studying foraging in the psychological laboratory. In: Animal Cognition and Behavior (ed. by R.L. Mellgren ), pp. 253–283. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Holland.Google Scholar
  34. Beardsley, T. 1983. Animals as gamblers. New Scientist, 615–618.Google Scholar
  35. Beckeman, S. 1983. Optimal foraging group size for a human population: the case of Bari fishing. American Zoologist, 23: 283–290.Google Scholar
  36. Beecher, R.M., Corruccini, R.S., and Freeman, M. 1983. Craniofacial correlates of dietary consistency in a nonhuman primate. Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology, 3: 193–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bell, G., Lefebvre, L., Giraldean, L.A., and Weary, D. 1984. Partial preference of insects for the male flowers of an annual herb. Oecologia, 64: 287–294.Google Scholar
  38. Belovsky, G.E. 1978. Diet optimization in a generalist herbivore, the moose. Theoretical Population Biology, 14: 105–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Belovsky, G.E. 1981. Food plant selection by a generalist herbivore: the moose. Ecology, 62: 1020–1030.Google Scholar
  40. Belovsky, G.E. 1984a. Summer diet optimization by beaver. American Midland Naturalist, 111: 209–222.Google Scholar
  41. Belovsky, G.E. 1984b. Herbivore optimal foraging: a comparative test of three models. American Naturalist, 124: 97–115.Google Scholar
  42. Belovsky, G.E. 1984c. Snowshoe hare optimal foraging and its implications for population dynamics. Theoretical Population Biology, 25: 235–264.Google Scholar
  43. Belovsky, G.E. 1984d. Moose and snowshoe hare competition and a mechanistic explanation from foraging theory. Oecologia, 61: 150–159.Google Scholar
  44. Bernier, R., and Pirlot, P. 1977. Organe et fonetion: essai de biophilosophie. Maloine, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  45. Bernstein, R.A. 1982. Foraging area size and food density: some predictive models. Theoretical Population Biology, 22: 309–323.Google Scholar
  46. Bertsch, A. 1983. Nectar production of Epilobium angustifolium L. at different air humidities: nectar sugar in flowers and the optimal foraging theory. Oecologia, 59: 40–48.Google Scholar
  47. Bertsch, A. 1984. Foraging in male bumblebees (Bombus lucorum L.): maximizing energy or minimizing water load? Oecologia, 62: 325–336.Google Scholar
  48. Best, L.S., and Bierzychudek, P. 1982. Pollinator foraging on foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) - a test of a new model. Evolution, 36: 70–79.Google Scholar
  49. Beukema, J.J. 1968. Predation by the three-spined stickleback (Gasterostens aculeatus L.): the influence of hunger and experience. Behaviour, 31: 1–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Bibby, C.J., and Green, R.E. 1980. Foraging behaviour of migrant pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca on temporary territories. Journal of Animal Ecology, 49: 507–521.Google Scholar
  51. Blois, C., and Cloarec, A. 1983. Density dependent prey selection in the water stick insect, Rann ainearis (Heteroptera). Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 849–866.Google Scholar
  52. Boggs, C.H., Rice, J.A., Kitchell, J.A., and Kitchell, J.F. 1984. Predation at a snail’s pace: what’s time to a gastropod? Oecologia, 62: 13–17.Google Scholar
  53. Bond, A.B. 1980. Optimal foraging in a uniform habitat: the search mechanism of the green lacewing. Animal Behaviour, 28: 10–19.Google Scholar
  54. Bond, A.B. 1981. Giving-up as a poisson process - the departure decision of the green lacewing. Animal Behaviour, 29: 629–630.Google Scholar
  55. Bond, A.B. 1983. The foraging behaviour of lacewing larvae on vertical rods. Animal Behaviour, 31: 990–1004.Google Scholar
  56. Boucher, D.H. 1981. The gospel according to sociobiology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 25: 63–65.Google Scholar
  57. Bouvier, M., and Hylander, W.L. 1981. Effect of bone strain on cortical bone structure in Macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Morphology, 167: 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Bradley, R.A. 1984. The influence of the quantity of food on fecundity in the desert grassland scorpion (Paruroctonns utaherisis) (Scorpionida, Vaejovidae): an experimental test. Oecologia, 62: 53–56.Google Scholar
  59. Brady, R.H. 1979. Natural selection and the criteria by which a theory is judged. Systematic Zoology, 28: 600 - 621.Google Scholar
  60. Brady, R.H. 1982. Dogma and doubt. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 17: 79–96.Google Scholar
  61. Brandt, C.A. 1984. Age and hunting success in the brown pelican: influences of skill and patch choice on foraging efficiency. Oecologia, 62: 132–137.Google Scholar
  62. Brattsten, L.B., Wilkinson, C.F., and Eisner, T. 1977. Herbivore-plant interactions: mixed-function oxidases and secondary plant substances. Science, 196: 1349–1352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Brooke, M. de L. 1981. How an adult Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) uses its territory when feeding nestlings. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50: 683–696.Google Scholar
  64. Brooke, M. de L. 1983. Wheatears, leatherjackets and a comment on central place foraging. Animal Behaviour, 31: 304–305.Google Scholar
  65. Brookfield, J.F.Y. 1982. Adaptation and functional explanation in biology. Evolutionary Theory, 5: 281–290.Google Scholar
  66. Brooks, D.R. 1979. Testing the context and extent of host-parasite coevolution. Systematic Zoology, 29: 192–203.Google Scholar
  67. Brooks, D.R. 1985. Historical Ecology: a new approach to studying the evolution of ecological associations. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 72: 660–680.Google Scholar
  68. Brower, L.P. 1969. Ecological chemistry. Scientific American, 220: 22–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Brues, C.T. 1946. Insect Dietary: An Account of the Food Habits of Insects. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  70. Bryant, D.M., and Turner, A.K. 1982. Central place foraging by swallows (Hirundinidae): the question of load size. Animal Behaviour, 30: 845–856.Google Scholar
  71. Burghardt, G.M. 1964. Effects of prey size and movement on the feeding behaviour of the lizards Anolis carolinensis and Eumaces fasciatus. Copeia, 1964: 576–578.Google Scholar
  72. Burghardt, G.M. 1970. Chemical perception in reptiles. In: Communication by Chemical Signals (ed. by J.W. Johnson, D.G. Moulton & A. Turk ). Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  73. Butler, S.M., and Bence, J.R. 1984. A diet model for planktivores that follow density-independent rules for prey selection. Ecology, 65: 1885 1894.Google Scholar
  74. Caldwell, G.S. 1980. Underlying benefits of foraging aggression in egrets. Ecology, 61: 996–997.Google Scholar
  75. Caraco. T. 1980. On foraging time allocation in a stochastic environment. Ecology, 61: 119–128.Google Scholar
  76. Caraco, T. 1981. Energy budgets, risk and foraging preferences in dark-eyed juncos. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 8: 213–217.Google Scholar
  77. Caraco, T. 1982. Aspects of risk-aversion in foraging white crowned-sparrows. Animal Behaviour, 30: 719–727.Google Scholar
  78. Caraco, T. 1983. White-crowned sparrows. (Zonotrichia leucophrys): foraging preference in a risky environment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 12: 63–69.Google Scholar
  79. Caraco, T., and Chasin, M. 1984. Foraging preferences: response to reward skew. Animal Behaviour, 32: 76–85.Google Scholar
  80. Caraco. T., Matindale, S. and Whittham, T.S. 1980. An empirical demonstration of risk-sensitive foraging preferences. Animal Behaviour, 28: 820–830.Google Scholar
  81. Carefoot, T.H. 1973. Feeding, food preference, and the uptake of food energy by the supralittoral isopod, Ligia pallasti. Marine Biology, 18: 228–236.Google Scholar
  82. Carlson, A. 1983. Maximizing energy delivery to dependent young: a field experiment with red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio). Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 697–704.Google Scholar
  83. Carlson, A., and Moreno, J. 1981. Central place foraging in the wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe - an experimental test. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50: 917–924.Google Scholar
  84. Carlson, A., and Moreno, J. 1982. The loading effect in central place foraging. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 11: 173–183.Google Scholar
  85. Caro, T.M. 1980a. The effects of experience on the predatory patterns of cats. Behavioural and Neural Biology, 29: 1–28.Google Scholar
  86. Caro, T.M. 1980b. Effects of the mother, object play, and adult experience on predation in cats. Behavioural and Neural Biology, 29: 29–51.Google Scholar
  87. Cassidy, M.D. 1978. Development of an induced food plant preference in the Indian stick insect, Carausius morosus. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 24: 87–93.Google Scholar
  88. Ceri, R.D., and Fraser, D.F. 1983. Predation and risk in foraging minnows: balancing conflicting demands. American Naturalist, 121: 552–561.Google Scholar
  89. Charnov, E.L. 1976a. Optimal foraging: attack strategy of a mantid. American Naturalist, 110: 141–151.Google Scholar
  90. Charnov, E.L. 1976b. Optimal foraging: the marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biology, 9: 129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Charnov, E.L. 1981. Marginal value: an answer to Templeton and Lawlor. American Naturalist, 117: 394.Google Scholar
  92. Charnov, E.L. 1982. The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeton University Press, Princeton, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  93. Cheverton, J. 1982. Bumblebees may use a suboptimal arbitrary handedness to solve difficult foraging decisions. Animal Behaviour, 30: 934–935.Google Scholar
  94. Cibula, A.A., and Zimmerman, M. 1984. The effect of plant density on departure decisions: testing the marginal value theorem using bumblebees and Delphinium nelsonii. Oikos, 43: 154–158.Google Scholar
  95. Clark, C.W., and Mangel, M. 1984. Foraging and flocking strategies: information in an uncertain environment. American Naturalist, 123: 626–641.Google Scholar
  96. Clark, D.A. 1982. Foraging behavior of a vertebrate omnivore (Rattus rattus): meal structure, sampling, and diet breadth. Ecology, 63: 763–772.Google Scholar
  97. Clutton-Brock, T.H., and Harvey, P.H. 1984. Comparative approaches to investigating adaptation. In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, Second edition (ed. by J.R. Krebs & N.B. Davies ), pp. 7–29. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  98. Cockrell, B.J. 1984. Effects of water depth on choice of spatially separated prey by Notonecta glauca L. Oecologia, 62: 256–261.Google Scholar
  99. Cody, M.L. 1971. Finch flocks in the Mohave Desert. Theoretical Population Biology, 2: 142–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Cody, M.L. 1974. Optimization in Ecology. Science, 183: 1156–1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Cohen, J. 1979. Maternal constraints on development. In: Maternal Effects in Development (ed. by D.R. Newth & M. Balls ), pp. 1–28. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  102. Collier, G.C., and Rovee-Collier, C.K. 1981. A comparative analysis of optimal foraging behaviour: laboratory simulations. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 39–76. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  103. Comins, H.N., and Hassell, M.P. 1979. The dynamics of optimally foraging predators and parasitoids. Journal of Animal Ecology, 48: 335–351.Google Scholar
  104. Connell, J.H., and Sousa, W.P. 1983. On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence. American Naturalist, 121: 789–824.Google Scholar
  105. Cook, R.M., and Cockrell, B.J. 1978. Predator ingestion rate and its bearing on feeding time and the theory of optimal diets. Journal of Animal Ecology, 47: 529–547.Google Scholar
  106. Cook, R.M., and Hubbard, S.F. 1977. Adaptive searching strategies in insect parasites. Journal of Animal Ecology, 46: 115–126.Google Scholar
  107. Corbet, S.A. 1985. Insect chemosensory responses: a chemical legacy hypothesis. Ecological Entomology, 10: 147–153.Google Scholar
  108. Corbet, S.A., Cuthill, A.I., Fallows, M., Harrison, T., and Hartley, G. 1981. Why do nectar-foraging bees and wasps work upwards on inflorescences? Oecologia, 51: 79–83.Google Scholar
  109. Cornell, H. 1976. Search strategies and the adaptive significance of switching in some general predators. American Naturalist, 110: 317–320.Google Scholar
  110. Covich, A. 1972. Ecological economics of seed consumption of Peromyscus: a graphical model of resource substitution. Transactions, Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 44: 69–93.Google Scholar
  111. Covich, A. 1974. Ecological economics of foraging among co-evolving animals and plants. Annales of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 61: 794–805.Google Scholar
  112. Covich, A.P. 1976. Analyzing shapes of foraging areas: some ecological and economic theories. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 7: 235–257.Google Scholar
  113. Cowie, R.J. 1977. Optimal foraging in the great tits (Parus major). Nature, 268: 137–139.Google Scholar
  114. Cowie, R.J., and Krebs, J.R. 1979. Optimal foraging in patchy environments. In: The British Ecological Society Symposium, Vol. 20, Population Dynamics (ed. by R.M. Anderson, B.D. Turner, & L.R. Taylor ), pp. 183–205. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  115. Craig, R.B., DeAngelis, D.L., and Dixon, K.R. 1979. Long- and short-term dynamic optimization models with application to the feeding strategy of the Loggerhead Shrike. American Naturalist, 113: 31–51.Google Scholar
  116. Craw, R.C. 1984a. Leon Croizat’s biogeographic work: a personal appreciation. Tuatara, 27: 8–13.Google Scholar
  117. Craw, R.C. 1984b. Charles Darwin on “Laws of growth.” Tuatara, 27: 19–20.Google Scholar
  118. Craw, R.C., and Weston, P. 1984. Panbiogeography: a progressive research program? Systematic Zoology, 33: 1–13.Google Scholar
  119. Crawford, L. 1983. Local contrast and memory windows as proximate foraging mechanisms. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 63: 283–293.Google Scholar
  120. Croizat, L. 1958. Panbiogeography. Published by the author, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  121. Croizat, L. 1961. Principia Botanica. Published by the author, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  122. Croizat, L. 1964. Space, Time, Form: the Biological Synthesis. Published by the author, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  123. Croizat-Chaley, L. 1978. Hennig (1966) entre Rosa (1918) y Lovtrup (1977): medio siglo de “Sistematica Filogentica.” Bolletin de la Academia de Ciencias fisicas Matematicas y Naturales Caracas, 38: 59–147.Google Scholar
  124. Crowder, L.B., and Magnnson, J.J. 1983. Cost-benefit analysis of temperature and food resource use: a synthesis with examples from fishes. In: Behavioural Energetics: the Cost of Survival in Vertebrates (ed. by W.P. Aspey & S.I. Lustick ), pp. 189–221. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  125. Curio. 1976. The Ethology of Predation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, West Germany.Google Scholar
  126. Curio, E. 1983. Time-energy budgets and optimization. Experientia, 39: 25–34.Google Scholar
  127. Davidson, D.W. 1978. Experimental tests of optimal diet in two social insects. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 4: 35–41.Google Scholar
  128. Davies, N.B. 1977a. Prey selection and the search strategy of the spotted flycatcher (Muscicapa striata): field study on optimal foraging. Animal Behaviour, 25: 1016–1033.Google Scholar
  129. Davies, N.B. 1977b. Prey selection and social behaviour in wagtails (Aves: Motacillidae). Journal of Animal Ecology, 46: 37–57.Google Scholar
  130. Davies, N.B., and Houston, A.I. 1981. Owners and satellites: the economics of territory defense in the pied wagtail, Motacilla alba. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50: 157–180.Google Scholar
  131. Davies, N.B., and Houston, A.I. 1983. Time allocation between territories and flocks and owner-satellite conflict in foraging pied wagtails, Motacilla alba. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 621–634.Google Scholar
  132. Davies, N.B., and Houston, A.I. 1984. Territory economics. In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, Second edition (ed. by J.R. Krebs & N.B. Davies ), pp. 148–169. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  133. DeBenedictis, P.A., Gill, F.B., Hainsworth, F.R., Pyke, G.H., and Wolf, L.L. 1978. Optimal meal size in hummingbirds. American Naturalist, 112: 301–316.Google Scholar
  134. Dethier, V.G. 1954. Evolution of feeding preferences in phytophagous insects. Evolution, 8: 33–54.Google Scholar
  135. Dill, L.M., and Fräser, A.H.G. 1984. Risk of predation and the feeding behaviour of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 16: 65–71.Google Scholar
  136. Dobzhansky, T. 1956. What is an adaptive trait? American Naturalist, 90: 337–347.Google Scholar
  137. Dobzhansky, T. 1968. Adaptedness and fitness. In: Population Biology and Evolution (ed. by R.C. Lewontin ), pp. 109–121. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  138. Doyle, R.W. 1979. Ingestion rate of a selective deposit feeder in a complex mixture of particles: testing the energy-optimization hypothesis. Limnology and Oceanography, 24: 867–874.Google Scholar
  139. Draulans, D. 1982. Foraging and size selection of mussels by the tufted duck, Aythya fuligula. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51: 943–956.Google Scholar
  140. Draulans, D. 1984. Sub-optimal mussel selection by tufted ducks Aythya fuligula: test of a hypothesis. Animal Behaviour, 32: 1192–1196.Google Scholar
  141. Dunbar, R.I.M. 1982. Adaptation, fitness and the evolutionary tautology. In: Current Problems in Sociobiology (ed. by King’s College Sociobiology Group ), pp. 9–28. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  142. Dunbrack, R.L. 1979. A re-examination of robbing behavior in foraging egrets. Ecology, 60: 644–645.Google Scholar
  143. Dunham, A.E. 1980. An experimental study of interspecific competition between the ignarid lizard Sceloporus merriami and Urosausus ornatus. Ecological Monographs, 50: 309–330.Google Scholar
  144. Dunstone, N. 1978. Fishing strategy of the mink (Mustela vison) - Time-budgeting of hunting effort. Behaviour, 67: 157–177.Google Scholar
  145. Dunstone, N., and O’Connor, R.J. 1979. Optimal foraging in an amphibious mammal. 1. The aqualung effect. Animal Behaviour, 27: 1182–1194.Google Scholar
  146. Durham, W.H. 1981. Overview: optimal foraging analysis. In: Hunter-gatherer Foraging Strategies (ed by. B. Winterhaider & E.A. Smith ). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  147. Dwyer, P.D. 1984. Functionalism and structuralism: two programs for evolutionary biologists. American Naturalist, 124: 745–750.Google Scholar
  148. Ebersole, J.P., and Wilson, J.C. 1980. Optimal foraging - the responses of Peromyscus leucopus to experimental changes in processing time and hunger. Oecologia, 46: 80–85.Google Scholar
  149. Egerton, F.N. 1973. Changing concepts of the balance of Nature. Quarterly Review of Biology, 48: 322–350.Google Scholar
  150. Ellis, J.E., Wiens, J.A., Rodell, C.F., and Anway, J.C. 1976. A conceptual model of diet selection as an ecosystem process. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 60: 93–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Elner, R.W., and Hughes, R.N. 1978. Energy maximization in the diet of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Journal of Animal Ecology, 47: 103–116.Google Scholar
  152. Emlen, J.M. 1966. The role of time and energy in food preference. American Naturalist, 100: 611–617.Google Scholar
  153. Emlen, J.M. 1968. Optimal choice in animals. American Naturalist, 102: 385–389.Google Scholar
  154. Emlen, J.M., and Emlen, G.R. 1975. Optimal choice in diet: test of a hypothesis. American Naturalist, 109: 427–435.Google Scholar
  155. Engen, S. 1984. A comment on stochastic approaches to optimal foraging theory. Ecology, 65: 652–654.Google Scholar
  156. Engen, S., and Stenseth, N.C. 1984a. An ecological paradox. A food type may become more rare in the diet as a consequence of being more abundant. American Naturalist, 124: 352–359.Google Scholar
  157. Engen, S., and Stenseth, N.C. 1984b. A general version of optimal foraging theory: the effect of simultaneous encounters. Theoretical Population Biology, 26: 192–204.Google Scholar
  158. Ens, B.J., and Goss-Custard, J.D. 1984. Interference among oystercatchers, Haematopus ostralegus, feeding on mussels, Mytilus edulis, on the Exe Estuary. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53: 217–231.Google Scholar
  159. Erichsen, J.T., Krebs, J.R., and Houston, A.I. 1980. Optimal foraging and cryptic prey. Journal of Animal Ecology, 49: 271–276.Google Scholar
  160. Erlinge, S. 1981. Food preference, optimal diet and reproductive output in stoats, Mustela erminea in Sweden. Oikos, 36: 303–315.Google Scholar
  161. Estabrook, G.F., and Dunham, A.E. 1976. Optimal diet as a function of absolute abundance, relative abundance, and relative value of available prey. American Naturalist, 110: 401–413.Google Scholar
  162. Evans, P.R. 1976. Energy balance and optimal foraging strategies in shorebirds: some implications for their distributions and movements in the non-breeding season. Ardea, 64: 117–139.Google Scholar
  163. Evans, R.M. 1982. Efficient use of food patches at different distances from a breeding colony in black-billed gulls. Behaviour, 79: 28–38.Google Scholar
  164. Eward, J.M. 1913. Is the appetite of swine a reliable indication of physiological needs? Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Sciences, 22: 375–403.Google Scholar
  165. Fagerstrom, T., Moreno, J., and Carlson, A. 1982. Load size and energy delivery in birds feeding nestlings - constraints on and alternative strategies to energy maximization. Oecologia, 56: 93–98.Google Scholar
  166. Farrar, D 1962. The Investment Decision Under Uncertainty. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  167. Fitzpatrick, J.W. 1981. Search strategies of tyrant flycatchers. Animal Behaviour, 29: 810–821.Google Scholar
  168. Ford, R.G. 1983. Home range in a patchy environment: optimal foraging predictions. American Zoologist, 23: 315–326.Google Scholar
  169. Formanowicz, D.R. 1984. Foraging tactics of an aquatic insect: partial consumption of prey. Animal Behaviour, 32: 774–781.Google Scholar
  170. Fretwell, S.D. 1972. Populations in a Seasonal Environment. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  171. Fretwell, S.D., and Lucas, H.L. 1970. On territorial behaviour and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. Acta Biotheroretica, 19: 16–36.Google Scholar
  172. Furnass, T.I. 1979. Laboratory experiments on prey selection by Perch fry (Perca fluviatilis). Freshwater Biology, 9: 33–43.Google Scholar
  173. Galef, B.G., Jr., and Henderson, P.W. 1971. Mother’s milk: a determinant of the feeding preferences of weaning rat pups. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 78: 213–219.Google Scholar
  174. Galis, F., and van Alphen, J.J.M. 1981. Patch time allocation and search intensity of Asofara tabida Nies (Broconidae), a larval parasitoid of Drosophila. Netherland Journal of Zoology, 31: 596–611.Google Scholar
  175. Gardner, M.B. 1981. Mechanisms of size selectivity of planktivorous fish: A test of hypothesis. Ecology, 62: 571–578.Google Scholar
  176. Garton, E.V. 1979. Implications of optimal foraging theory for insectivorous forest birds. In: Role of Insectivorous Birds in Forest Ecosystems (ed. by J.G. Dickson, R.N. Connor, R.R. Fleet, J.C. Kroll, & J.G. Jackson ), pp. 107–118. Academic Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  177. Gass, C.L., and Montgomerie, R.D. 1981. Hummingbird foraging behavior: decision making and energy regulation. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by. A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 159–194. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  178. Gendron, R.P., and Staddon, J.E.R. 1983. Searching for cryptic prey: the effect of search rate. American Naturalist, 121: 172–186.Google Scholar
  179. Gendron, R.P., and Staddon, J.E.R. 1984. A laboratory simulation of foraging behaviour: the effect of search rate on the probability of detecting prey. American Naturalist, 124: 401–415.Google Scholar
  180. Gerritsen, J. 1984. Size efficiency reconsidered: a general foraging model for free-swimming aquatic animals. American Naturalist, 123: 450–467.Google Scholar
  181. Gibson, R.M. 1980. Optimal prey-size selection by 3-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) a test of the apparent size hypothesis. Zeitscheift fur Tierpsychologie, 52: 291–307.Google Scholar
  182. Gilbert, F.S. 1983. The foraging Ecology of hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) circular movements on composite flowers. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 13: 253–257.Google Scholar
  183. Gilbert, J.J. 1966. Rotifer Ecology and embryological induction. Science, 151: 1234–1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Gill, F.B., and Wolf, L.L. 1975. Foraging strategies and energetics of east african sunbirds at mistletoe flowers. American Naturalist, 109: 491–510.Google Scholar
  185. Giller, P.S. 1980. The control of handling time and its effects on the foraging strategy of a heteropteran predator, Notonecta. Journal of Animal Ecology, 49: 699–712.Google Scholar
  186. Gilliam, J.F., Green, R.F., and Pearson, N.E. 1982. The fallacy of the traffic policeman: a response to Templeton and Lawlor. American Naturalist, 119: 895–878.Google Scholar
  187. Giraldeau, L.A., and Kramer, D.L. 1982. The marginal value theorem - a quantitative test using load size variation in a central place forager, the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus. Animal Behaviour, 30: 1036–1042.Google Scholar
  188. Gittelman, S.H. 1978. Optimum diet and body size in backswimmers (Heteroptera: Notonectidae, Pleidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 71: 737–747.Google Scholar
  189. Glasser, J.W. 1984a. Is conventional foraging theory optimal? American Naturalist, 124: 900–905.Google Scholar
  190. Glasser, J.W. 1984b. Evolution of efficiencies and strategies of resource exploitation. Ecology, 65: 1570–1578.Google Scholar
  191. Gluck, E. 1984. Habitat selection in birds and the role of early experience. Zietschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 66: 45–54.Google Scholar
  192. Godin, J.G.J., and Keenleyside, M.H.A. 1984. Foraging on patchily distributed prey by a cichlid fish (Teleostei, cichlidae): a test of the ideal free-distribution theory. Animal Behaviour, 32: 120–131.Google Scholar
  193. Goss-Custard, J.D. 1977a. Optimal foraging and the size selection of worms by redshank (Tringa totanus) in the field. Animal Behaviour, 25: 10–29.Google Scholar
  194. Goss-Custard, J.D. 1977b. The energetics of prey selection by redshank Tringa totanus (L.) in relation to prey density. Journal of Animal Ecology, 46: 1–19.Google Scholar
  195. Goss-Custard, J.D. 1981. Feeding behavior of redshank, Tringa totanus, and optimal foraging theory. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological, and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 115–133. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  196. Goss-Custard, J.D. 1984. Intake rates and food supply in migrating and wintering shorebirds. In: Shorebirds: Migration and Foraging Behaviour, Behaviour of Marine Animals, Volume 6 (ed. by J. Burger & B.L. Olla ), pp. 233–270. Plenum Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  197. Gottlieb, G. 1976. Conceptions of prenatal development: behavioural embryology. Psychology Review, 83: 215–234.Google Scholar
  198. Gould, S.J. 1978. Sociobiology: the art of storytelling. New Scientist, 80: 530–533.Google Scholar
  199. Gould, S.J. 1981. But not Wright enough: reply to Orzack. Paleobiology, 7: 131–134.Google Scholar
  200. Gould, S.J. 1984. Covariance sets and ordered geographic variation in Cerion from Arabia, Bonnaire, and Curacao: a way of studying nonadaptation. Systematic Zoology, 33: 217–237.Google Scholar
  201. Gould, S.J., and Lewontin, R.C. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 205: 581–598.Google Scholar
  202. Gradwohl, J.A., and Greenberg, R. 1984. Search behaviour of the checker-throated antwren foraging in aerial leaf litter. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 15: 281–285.Google Scholar
  203. Grant, J.W.G., and Bayley, I.A.E. 1981. Predators induction of crests in morphs of the Daphnia carinata King complex. Limnology and Oceanography 26: 201–218.Google Scholar
  204. Gray, L. 1981. Genetic and experiential differences affecting foraging behaviour. In: Foraging Behaviour: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 455–473. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  205. Gray, R. In press. Metaphors and methods: Behavioral Ecology, panbiogeography and the evolving synthesis. In: Process and Metaphors in the New Evolutionary Paradigm (ed. by M.W. Ho & S. Fox). John Wiley & Sons, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  206. Green, R.F. 1980. Bayesian birds: simple example of Oatenfs stochastic model of optimal foraging. Theoretical Population Biology, 18: 244–256.Google Scholar
  207. Green, R.F. 1984. Stopping rules for optimal foragers. American Naturalist 123: 30–43.Google Scholar
  208. Greenstone, M.H. 1979. Spider feeding behaviour optimises dietary essential amino acid composition. Nature, 282: 501–503.Google Scholar
  209. Greenstone, M.H. 1980. Nature, 284: 578.Google Scholar
  210. Greenwood, J.J.D. 1984. The evolutionary Ecology of predation. In: Evolutionary Ecology: The 23rd Symposium of the British Ecological Society, Leeds, 1982 (ed. by B. Shorrocks ), pp. 233–273. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  211. Greenwood, P.H. 1965. Environmental effects on the pharyngeal mill of a chichlid fish, Astatoreochromis alluaudi and the taxonomic implications. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, 176: 1–10.Google Scholar
  212. Grehan, J.R. 1984. The host range of Aenetus virescens (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) and its evolution. New Zealand Entomologist, 8: 52–61.Google Scholar
  213. Greig-Smith, P.W. 1984. Food-handling by bullfinches in relation to the risks associated with dropping seeds. Animal Behaviour, 32: 929–931.Google Scholar
  214. Griffiths, D. 1975. Prey availability and the food of predators. Ecology, 56: 1209–1214.Google Scholar
  215. Griffiths, D. 1981. Sub-optimal foraging in the ant-lion Macroleon quinquemaculatus. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50: 697–702.Google Scholar
  216. Griffiths, D. 1982. Tests of alternative models of prey consumption by predators, using ant-lion larvae. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51: 363–373.Google Scholar
  217. Grossman, M.I., Greengard, H., and Ivy, A.C. 1943. The effect of dietary composition on pancreatic enzymes. American Journal of Physiology, 138: 676–682.Google Scholar
  218. Grubb, T.C. 1979. Factors controlling foraging strategies of insectivorous birds. In: Role of Insectivorous Birds in Forest Ecosystems (ed. by J.G. Dickson, R.N. Connor, R.R. Fleet, J.C. Kroll, & J.G. Jackson ), pp. 119–135. Academic Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  219. Grubb, T.C., and Greenwald, L. 1982. Sparrows and a brushpile - foraging responses to different combinations of predation risk and energy cost. Animal Behaviour, 30: 637–640.Google Scholar
  220. Hailman, J.P. 1982a. Evolution and behaviour: an iconoclastic view. In: Learning, Development and Culture (ed. by H.C. Plotkin ), pp. 205–254. John Wiley and Sons, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  221. Hailman, J.P. 1982b. Ontogeny: towards a general theoretical framework for Ethology. In: Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 5 (ed. by P.P.G. Bateson & P.H. Klopfer ), pp. 133–189. Plenum Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  222. Hainsworth, F.R. 1978. Feeding: Models of costs and benefits in energy regulation. American Zoologist, 18: 701–714.Google Scholar
  223. Hainsworth, F.R., and Wolf, L.L. 1976. Nectar characteristics and food selection by hummingbirds. Oecologia, 25: 101–113.Google Scholar
  224. Hainsworth, F.R., and Wolf, L.L. 1983. Models and evidence for feeding control of energy. American Zoologist, 23: 261–272.Google Scholar
  225. Hainsworth, F.R., Tardiff, M.F., and Wolf, L.L. 1981. Proportional control for daily energy regulation in hummingbirds. Physiological Zoology, 54: 452–462.Google Scholar
  226. Harley, C.B. 1981. Learning the evolutionarily stable strategy. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 89: 611–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Harley, C.B. 1983. When do animals learn the evolutionary stable strategy? Journal of Theoretical Biology, 105: 179–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Harper, D.G.C. 1982. Competitive foraging in mallards: “ideal free” ducks. Animal Behaviour, 30: 575–584.Google Scholar
  229. Harper, J.L. 1982. After description. In: The Plant Community as a Working Mechanism (ed. by E.I. Newman ), pp. 11–25. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  230. Hartling, L.K., and Plowright, R.C. 1979. Foraging by bumblebees on patches of artificial flowers: a laboratory study. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 57: 1866–1870.Google Scholar
  231. Hassell, M.P., and Southwood, T.R.E. 1978. Foraging strategies of insects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 9: 75–98.Google Scholar
  232. Hassell, M.P. 1980. Foraging strategies, population models and biological control - a case study. Journal of Animal Ecology, 49: 603–628.Google Scholar
  233. Haynes, J., and Mesler, M. 1984. Pollen foraging by bumblebees: foraging patterns and efficiency on Lupinus polyphyllus. Oecologia, 61: 249–253.Google Scholar
  234. Heather, B.D. 1977. Foot-trembling by the black-fronted dotteral. Notornis, 24: 1–8.Google Scholar
  235. Hegner, R.E. 1982. Central place foraging in the white-fronted bee-eater. Animal Behaviour, 30: 953–963.Google Scholar
  236. Heinrich, B. 1979a. Majoring and minoring by foraging bumblebees Bobumbus vagans: an experimental analysis. Ecology, 60: 245–255.Google Scholar
  237. Heinrich, B. 1979b. Bumblebee Economics. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  238. Heinrich, B. 1983. Do bumblebees forage optimally, and does it matter? American Zoologist, 23: 273–281.Google Scholar
  239. Heinrich, B., and Heinrich, M.J.E. 1984. The pit-trapping foraging strategy of the ant lion, Myrmeleon immaculatus De Geer (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 14: 151–160.Google Scholar
  240. Heithaus, E.R., and Fleming, T.H. 1978. Foraging movements of a frugivorous bat, Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomatidae). Ecological Monographs, 48: 127–143.Google Scholar
  241. Heller, R. 1980. On optimal diet in a patchy environment. Theoretical Population Biology, 17: 201–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Heller, R., and Milinski, M. 1979. Optimal foraging of sticklebacks on swarming prey. Animal Behaviour, 27: 1127–1141.Google Scholar
  243. Herrnstein, R.S. 1964. Aperiodicity as a factor in choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, 7: 179–182.Google Scholar
  244. Herrnstein, R.J., and Heyman, G.M. 1979. Is matching compatible with reinforcement maximization on concurrent variable interval, variable ratio? Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, 31: 209–223.Google Scholar
  245. Himmelfarb, G. 1962. Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution. Doubleday, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  246. Hixon, M.A. 1982. Energy maximizers and time minimizers: theory and reality. American Naturalist, 119: 596–599.Google Scholar
  247. Ho, M.W. 1984a. Where does biological form come from? Rivista di Biología 77: 147–179.Google Scholar
  248. Ho, M.W. 1984b. Environment and heredity in development and evolution. In: Beyond Neo-Darwinism (ed. by. M.W. Ho & P.T. Saunders ), pp. 267–289. Academic Press, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  249. Ho, M.W. In press. Evolution: natural selection or self-organization? Proceedings of the International Study Group on Self-organization and Dissipative Structures. Cumberland Lodge, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  250. Ho, M.W., and Saunders, P.T. 1979. Beyond neo-Darwinism: an epigenetic approach to evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 78: 573–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Ho, M.W., and Saunders, P.T. 1982a. Adaptation and natural selection: mechanism and teleology. In: Towards a Literatory Biology (ed. by S. Rose ), pp. 85–102. Allison and Busby, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  252. Ho, M.W., and Saunders, P.T. 1982b. The epigenetic approach to the evolution of organisms - with notes on its relevance to social and cultural evolution. In: Learning, Development and Culture (ed. by H.C. Plotkin ), pp. 343–361. John Wiley and Sons, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  253. Hodapp, A., and Fry, D. 1982. Optimal foraging by firemouth cichlids, Cichasoma meeki, in social context. Animal Behaviour, 30: 983–989.Google Scholar
  254. Hodges, C.M. 1981. Optimal foraging in bumblebees - hunting by expectation. Animal Behaviour, 29: 1166–1171.Google Scholar
  255. Hodges, C.M., and Wolf, L.L. 1981. Optimal foraging in bumblebees: why is nectar left behind in flowers? Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 9: 41–44.Google Scholar
  256. Hoffman, G. 1983. Optimization of brownian search strategies. Biological Cyberretics, 49: 21–31.Google Scholar
  257. Holling, C.S. 1959. The components of predation as revealed by a study of small-mammal predation of the European pine sawfly. Canadian Entomologist, 91: 293–320.Google Scholar
  258. Holmes, W.G. 1984. Predation risk and foraging behaviour of the hoary mormot in Alaska. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 15: 293–301.Google Scholar
  259. Holt, R.D. 1983. Optimal foraging and the form of the predator isocline. American Naturalist, 122: 521–541.Google Scholar
  260. Horn, H.S., and Rubenstein, D.I. 1984. Behavioural adaptations and life history. In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, Second edition (ed. by J. R. Krebs & N.B. Davies ), pp. 279–298. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  261. Horn, M.H. 1983. Optimal diets in complex environments - feeding strategies of 2 herbivorous fishes from a temperate rocky intertidal zone. Oceologia, 58: 345–350.Google Scholar
  262. Houston, A.I. 1980. Godzilla v. the creature from the black lagoon. In: The Analysis of Motivational Systems (ed. by M.F. Toates & T.R. Halliday ), pp. 297–318. Academic Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  263. Houston, A.I. 1983. Comments on “Learning the evolutionary stable strategy.” Journal of Theoretical Biology, 105: 175–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Houston, A., Kacelnik, A., and McNamara, J.M. 1982. Some learning rules for acquiring information. In: Functional Ontogeny (ed. by D. McFarland ), pp. 140–191. Pitman Publishing, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  265. Houston, A.I., Krebs, J.R., and Erichsen, J.T. 1980. Optimal prey choice and discrimination time in the great tit (Parus major L.). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 6: 169–175.Google Scholar
  266. Houston, A.I., and McNamara, J.M. 1982. A sequential approach to risk taking. Animal Behaviour, 30: 1260–1261.Google Scholar
  267. Houston, A.I., and McNamara, J.M. 1984. Imperfectly optimal animals. A correction. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 15: 61–64.Google Scholar
  268. Howell, D.J., and Hartl, D.L. 1980. Optimal foraging in glossophagine bats: when to give up. American Naturalist, 115: 696–704.Google Scholar
  269. Howell, D.J., and Hartl, D.L. 1982. In defense of optimal foraging by bats: a reply to Schluter. American Naturalist, 119: 438–439.Google Scholar
  270. Hubbard, S.F., and Cook, R.M. 1978. Optimal foraging by parasitoid wasps. Journal of Animal Ecology, 47: 593–604.Google Scholar
  271. Hubbard, S.F., Cook, R.M., Glover, J.G., and Greenwood, J.J.D. 1982. Apostatic selection as an optimal foraging strategy. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51: 625–633.Google Scholar
  272. Huey, R.B., Bennett, A.F., John-Alder, H., and Nagy, K.A. 1984. Locomotor capacity and foraging behaviour of Kalahari lacertid lizards. Animal Behaviour, 32: 41–50.Google Scholar
  273. Hughes, R.N. 1979. Optimal diets under the energy maximization premise: the effects of recognition time and learning. American Naturalist, 113: 209–221.Google Scholar
  274. Hughes, R.N. 1980. Optimal foraging theory in the marine context. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Reviews, 18: 423–481.Google Scholar
  275. Hughes, R.N., and Elner, R.W. 1979. Tactics of a predator, Carcinus maenas, and morphological responses of the prey, Nucella lapillus. Journal of Animal Ecology, 48: 65–78.Google Scholar
  276. Hughes, R.N., and Seed, R. 1981. Size selection of mussels by the blue crab Calinectes sapidus. Energy maximizer or time minimizer. Marine Ecology, 6: 83–89.Google Scholar
  277. Humphreys, W.F. 1980. Spider feeding behaviour optimises dietary essential amino acid composition. Nature, 284: 578.Google Scholar
  278. Inoue, T. 1983a. Foraging strategy of a non-omniscient predator in a changing environment (I). Model with a data window and absolute criterion. Researches in Population Ecology, 25: 81–104.Google Scholar
  279. Inoue, T. 1983b. Foraging strategy of a non-omniscient predator in a changing environment (II). Model with two data windows and a relative comparison criterion. Researches in Population Ecology, 25: 264–279.Google Scholar
  280. Inoue, T., and Matsura, T. 1983. Foraging strategy of a mantid, Paratenodera angustipennis Mechanisms of switching tactics between ambush and active search. Oecologia, 56: 264–271.Google Scholar
  281. Ivlev, V.S. 1961. Experimental Feeding Ecology of Fishes. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  282. Iwasa, Y., Higashi, M., and Yamamura, N. 1981. Prey distribution as a factor determining the choice of optimal foraging strategy. American Naturalist, 117: 710–723.Google Scholar
  283. Jaeger, R.G., and Barnard, D.E. 1981. Foraging tactics of a terrestrial salamander: choice of diet in structurally simple environment. American Naturalist, 117: 639–664.Google Scholar
  284. Jaeger, R.G., Barnard, D.E., and Joseph, R.G. 1982. Foraging tactics of a terrestrial salamander: assessing prey density. American Naturalist, 119: 895–890.Google Scholar
  285. Jaeger, R.G., Joseph, R.G., and Barnard, D.E. 1981. Foraging tacts of a terrestrial salamander - sustained yield in territories. Animal Behaviour, 29: 1100–1105.Google Scholar
  286. Jaeger, R.G., Nishikawa, K.L.B., and Barnard, D.E. 1983. Foraging tactics of a terrestrial salamander: costs of territorial defense. Animal Behaviour, 31: 191–198.Google Scholar
  287. Jaeger, R.G., and Rubin, A.M. 1982. Foraging tactics of a terrestrial salamander - judging prey profitability. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51: 167–176.Google Scholar
  288. Jamieson, I.G. 1986. The functional approach to behaviour: is it useful? American Naturalist, 127: 195–208.Google Scholar
  289. Jander, R. 1982. Random and systematic search in foraging insects. In: The Biology of Social Insects (ed. by M.D. Breed, C.D. Michener, & H. E. Evans ), pp. 28–31. Westview, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  290. Janetos, A.C. 1982. Active foragers vs. sit and wait predators. A simple model. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 95: 381–385.Google Scholar
  291. Janetos, A.C., and Cole, B.J. 1981. Imperfectly optimal animals. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 9: 203–210.Google Scholar
  292. Janssen, J. 1983. How do bluegills “select” large daphnia in turbid water. Ecology, 64: 403.Google Scholar
  293. Jenkins, S.H. 1980. A size-distance relation in food selection by beavers. Ecology, 61: 740–746.Google Scholar
  294. Jenkins, S.H. 1982. Management implications of optimal foraging theory: a critique. Journal of Wildlife Management, 46: 255–257.Google Scholar
  295. Jermy, T., Hanson, F.E., and Dethier, V.C. 1968. Induction of specific food preference in lepidopterous larvae. Entomología experimentalis et applicata, 11: 211–230.Google Scholar
  296. Jones, C.G. 1983. Microorganisms as mediators of resource exploitation. In: A New Ecology: Novel Approaches to Interactive Systems (ed. by P.W. Price, C.N. Slobodchikoff & W.S. Gand ), pp. 53–99. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  297. Johnston, T.D. 1984. Development and the origin of behavioural strategies. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 7: 108–109.Google Scholar
  298. Johnston, T.D., and Gottlieb, G. The origins of variations: a developmental problem for evolutionary theory. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  299. Jubb, C.A., Hughes, R.N., and Rheinallt, T.Ap. 1983. Behavioural mechanisms of size-selection by crabs, Carcinus maenas (L.) feeding on mussels, Mytihs edulis L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 66: 81–87.Google Scholar
  300. Kacelnik, A. 1979. Studies of Foraging Behaviour and Time Budgeting in Great Tits (Parus major). D. Phil, thesis, Oxford University, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  301. Kacelnik, A. 1984. Central place foraging in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) I. Patch residence time. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53: 283–289.Google Scholar
  302. Kacelnik, A., and Houston, A.I. 1984. Some effects of energy costs on foraging strategies. Animal Behaviour, 32: 609–614.Google Scholar
  303. Kacelnik, A., Houston, A.I., and Krebs, J.R. 1981. Optimal foraging and territorial defense in the great tit (Parus major). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 8: 35–40.Google Scholar
  304. Kamil, A.C. 1983. Optimal foraging theory and the psychology of learning. American Zoologist, 23: 291–302.Google Scholar
  305. Kamil, A.C., Peters, J., and Lindstrom, F.J. 1982. An ecological perspective on the study of the allocation of behaviour. In: Quantitative Analysis of Behaviour, Volume 2, Matching and Maximizing Accounts (ed. by R.L. Commons, R.J. Herrnstein & H. Rachlin ), pp. 189–203. Ballinger New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  306. Kamil, A.C., and Sargent, T.D. 1981. Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological, and Psychological Approaches. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  307. Kamil, A.C., and Yoerg, S.J. 1982. Learning and foraging behaviour. In: Perspectives in Ethology, Vol. 5 (ed. by P.P.G. Bateson & P.H. Klopfer ) pp. 325–364. Plenum Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  308. Kasuyo, E. 1982. Central place water collection in a Japanese paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis. Animal Behaviour, 30: 1010–1014.Google Scholar
  309. Katz, P.L. 1974. A long-term approach to foraging optimization. American Naturalist, 198: 758–782.Google Scholar
  310. Kaufman, L.W., and Collier, G. 1981. Economics of seed handling. American Naturalist, 118: 46–60.Google Scholar
  311. Kawai, M. 1965. Newly acquired pre-cultural behavior of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys on Koshima Islet. Primates, 6: 1–30.Google Scholar
  312. Keene, A.S. 1981. Optimal foraging in nonmarginal environments, model of prehistoric subsistence strategies in Michigan. In: Hunter-gatherer Foraging Strategies (ed. by B. Winterhaider & E.A. Smith ), pp. 171–193. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  313. Kenwood, R.E., and Sibly, R.M. 1977. A woodpigeon (Columba palumbus) feeding preference explained by a digestive bottleneck. Journal of Applied Ecology, 14: 815–826.Google Scholar
  314. Kephart, D.G., and Arnold, S.J. 1982. Garter snake diets in a fluctuating environment: a seven-year study. Ecology, 63: 1232–1236.Google Scholar
  315. Killeen, P.R., Smith, J.P., and Hanson, S.J. 1981. Central place foraging in Rattus norvegicus. Animal Behaviour, 29: 64–70.Google Scholar
  316. Kimbrough, S.O. 1980. The concepts of fitness and selection in evolutionary biology. Journal of Social and Biological Structure, 3: 149–170.Google Scholar
  317. Kislalioglu, M., and Gibson, R.N. 1976. Prey “handling time” and its importance in food selection by the 15-spined stickleback, Spinachia spinachia (L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 25: 151–158.Google Scholar
  318. Kitchell, J.A., Boggs, C.H., Kitchell, J.F., and Rice, J.A. 1981. Prey selection by naticid gastropods: experimental tests and application to the fossil record. Paleobiology, 7: 533–552.Google Scholar
  319. Kohler, S.L. 1984. Search mechanism of a stream grazer in patchy environments: the role of food abundance. Oecologia, 62: 209–218.Google Scholar
  320. Kramer, D.L., and Nowell, W. 1980. Central place foraging in the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus. Animal Behaviour, 28: 772–778.Google Scholar
  321. Krans, B. 1983. A test of the optimal-density model for seed scatterhoarding. Ecology, 64: 608–610.Google Scholar
  322. Krebs, J.R. 1973. Behavioural aspects of predation. In: Perspectives in Ethology, Volume 1 (ed. by P.P.G. Bateson & P.H. Klopfer ), pp. 73–111. Plenum Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  323. Krebs, J.R. 1977. Optimal foraging: theory and experiment. Nature, 268: 583–584.Google Scholar
  324. Krebs, J.R. 1978. Optimal foraging: decision rules for predators. In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (ed. by J.R. Krebs & N.B. Davies ), pp. 23–63. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  325. Krebs, J.R. 1979. Foraging strategies and their social significance. In: Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology: Volume 3, Social Behavior and Communication (ed. by P. Marler & J.G. Vandenbergh ), pp. 225–270. Plenum Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  326. Krebs, J.R. 1980. Optimal foraging, predation risk, and territory defense. Ardea, 68: 83–90.Google Scholar
  327. Krebs, J.R. 1983. From skinner box to the field. Nature, 304: 117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Krebs, J.R., and Cowie, R.J. 1976. Foraging strategies in birds. Ardea, 64: 98–116.Google Scholar
  329. Krebs, J.R., and Davies, N.B. 1981. An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  330. Krebs, J.R., Erichsen, J.T., Webber, M.I., and Charnov, E.L. 1977. Optimal prey selection in the great tit (Parus major). Animal Behaviour, 25: 30–38.Google Scholar
  331. Krebs, J.R., Houston, A.I., and Charnov, E.L. 1981. Some recent developments in optimal foraging. In: Foraging Behaviour: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 3–18. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  332. Krebs, J.R., and Kacelnik, A. 1984. Time horizons of foraging animals. In: Timing and Time Perception. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 423 (ed. by J. Gibbon & L. Allan ), pp. 278–291. The New York Academy of Sciences, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  333. Krebs, J.R., Kacelnik, A., and Taylor, P. 1978. Test of optimal sampling by foraging great tits. Nature, 275: 27–31.Google Scholar
  334. Krebs, J.R., and McCleery, R.H. 1984. Optimization in behavioural Ecology. In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, Second edition (ed. by J.R. Krebs & N.B. Davies ), pp. 91–121. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  335. Krebs, J.R., Ryan, J.C., and Charnov, E.L. 1974. Hunting by expectation or optimal foraging? A study of patch use by chickadees. Animal Behaviour, 22: 953–964.Google Scholar
  336. Krebs, J.R., Stephens, D.W., and Sutherland, W.J. 1983. Perspectives in optimal foraging. In: Perspectives in Ornithology (ed. by G.A. Clark & A.H. Brush ), pp. 165–216. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  337. Krimbas, C.B. 1984. On adaptation, neo-Darwinian tautology, and population fitness. Evolutionary Biology, 17: 1–57.Google Scholar
  338. Krueger, D.A., and Dodson, S.I. 1981. Embryological induction and prédation Ecology in Daphnia pulex. Limnology and Oceanography, 26: 219–223.Google Scholar
  339. Kruse, K.C. 1983. Optimal foraging by predaceous diving beetle larvae on toad tadpoles. Oecologia, 58: 383–388.Google Scholar
  340. Kuhn, T.S. 1957. The Copernican Revolution. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  341. Kuo, Z.Y. 1967. The Dynamics of Behaviour Development: an Epigenetic View. Random House, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  342. Kushlan, J.A. 1978. Nonrigorous foraging by robbing egrets. Ecology, 59: 649–653.Google Scholar
  343. Kushlan, J.A. 1979. Short-term energy maximization of egret foraging. Ecology, 60: 645–646.Google Scholar
  344. Lacher, T.E., Jr., Willig, M.R., and Mares, M.A. 1982. Food preference as a function of resource abundance with multiple prey types: an experimental analysis of optimal foraging theory. American Naturalist, 120: 297–316.Google Scholar
  345. Lakatos, I. 1970. Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In: Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge (ed. by I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave ), pp. 91–95. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  346. Lam, R.K., and Frost, B.W. 1976. Model of copepod filtering response to changes in size and concentration of food. Limnology and Oceanography, 21: 490–500.Google Scholar
  347. Lawton, J.H., Beddington, J.R., and Bonser, R. 1974. Switching in invertebrate predators. In: Ecological Stability (ed. by M.B. Usher & M.H. Williamson ), pp. 141–158. Chapman and Hall, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  348. Lea, S.E.G. 1979. Foraging and reinforcement schedules in the pigeon - optimal and non-optimal aspects of choice. Animal Behaviour, 27: 875–886.Google Scholar
  349. Lea, S.E.G. 1981. Correlation and contiguity in foraging behavior. In: Predictability, Correlation, and Contiguity (ed. by P. Harzern & M.D. Zeiler ), pp. 355–405. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K.Google Scholar
  350. Lea, S.E.G. 1982. The mechanism of optimality in foraging. In: Quantitative Analyses of Behavior, Volume 2: Matching and Maximizing Accounts (ed. by M.L. Commons, R.J. Herrnstein, & H. Rachlin ), pp. 169–188. Ballinger Publishing Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  351. Lea, S.E.G., and Dow, S.M. 1984. The integration of reinforcements over time. In: Timing and Time Perception. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 423 (ed. by J. Gibbon & L. Allan), pp. 269–277. The New York Academy of Sciences, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  352. Lefebvre, L. 1983. Equilibrium distribution of feral pigeons at multiple food sources. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 12: 11–17.Google Scholar
  353. Lehman, J.T. 1976. The filter-feeder as an optimal forager, and the predicted shapes of feeding curves. Limnology and Oceanography, 21: 501–516.Google Scholar
  354. Lehrman, D.S. 1953. A critique of Konrad Lorenz’s theory of instinctive behaviour. Quarterly Review of Biology, 28: 337–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Lehrman, D.S. 1970. Semantic and conceptual issues in the Nature-nurture problem. In: Development and Evolution of Behaviour (ed. by L.R. Aronson, E. Tobach, D.S. Lehrman, & J.S. Rosenblatt ), pp. 17–52. Freeman, San Francisco, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  356. Lemke, O. 1984. Foraging Ecology of the long-nosed bat, Glossophaga soricina, with respect to resource availability. Ecology, 65: 538–548.Google Scholar
  357. Lerner, I.M. 1954. Genetic Homeostasis. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, U.K.Google Scholar
  358. Lessells, C.M., and Stephens, D.W. 1983. Central place foraging - single prey loaders again. Animal Behaviour, 31: 238–243.Google Scholar
  359. Lester, N.P. 1984. The “feed: feed” decision: how goldfish solve the patch depletion problem. Behaviour, 89: 175–199.Google Scholar
  360. Leventhal, A.M., Morrell, R.F., Morgan, E.E., Jr., and Perkins, C.C., Jr. 1959. The relation between mean reward and mean reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57: 284–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Levey, D.J., Moermond, T.C., and Denslow, J.S. 1984. Fruit choice in neotropical birds: the effect of distance between fruits on preference patterns. Ecology, 65: 844–850.Google Scholar
  362. Levins, R. 1966. The strategy of model building in population biology. American Scientist, 54: 421–431.Google Scholar
  363. Levins, R., and MacArthur, R. 1969. An hypothesis to explain the incidence of monophagy. Ecology, 50: 910–911.Google Scholar
  364. Lewis, A.R. 1980. Patch use by gray squirrels and optimal foraging. Ecology, 61: 1371–1379.Google Scholar
  365. Lewis, A.R. 1982. Selection of nuts by gray squirrels and optimal foraging theory. American Midland Naturalist, 107: 250–257.Google Scholar
  366. Lewontin, R.C. 1971. The effect of genetic linkage on mean fitness of a population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 68: 984–986Google Scholar
  367. Lewontin, R.C. 1978. Adaptation. Scientific American, 239: 156–169.Google Scholar
  368. Lewontin, R.C. 1979a. Sociobiology as an adaptationist program. Behavioural Science, 24: 5–14.Google Scholar
  369. Lewontin, R.C. 1979b. Fitness, survival and optimality. In: Analysis of Ecological Systems (ed. by D.H. Horn, R. Mitchell & G.R. Stairs ), pp. 3–21. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  370. Lewontin, R.C. 1980. Adaptation. Reprinted from the Encyclopedia Einaudi, Milan, Italy. In: Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology: An Anthology (ed. by E. Sober ), pp. 235–251. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  371. Lewontin, R.C. 1981. On constraint and adaptation. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 4: 244–245.Google Scholar
  372. Lewontin, R.C. 1982. Organism and environment. In: Learning, Development and Culture: Essays in Evolutionary Epistemology (ed. by H.C. Plotkin ) pp. 151–170. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K.Google Scholar
  373. Lewontin, R.C. 1983. Gene, organism and environment. In: Evolution From Molecules to Men (ed. by D.S. Bendall ), pp. 273–285. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  374. Li, C.C. 1955. The stability of an equilibrium and the average fitness of a population. American Naturalist, 89: 281–295.Google Scholar
  375. Lima, S.L. 1983. Downy woodpecker foraging behavior: foraging by expectation and energy intake rate. Oecologia, 58: 232–237.Google Scholar
  376. Lima, S.L. 1984. Downy woodpecker foraging behaviour: efficient sampling in simple stochastic environments. Ecology, 65: 166–174.Google Scholar
  377. Lobel, P.S., and Ogden, J.C. 1981. Foraging by the herbivorous parrot fish Sparisoma radians. Marine Biology, 64: 173–183.Google Scholar
  378. Lucas, J.R. 1983. The role of foraging time constraints and variable prey encounter in optimal diet choice. American Naturalist, 122: 191–209.Google Scholar
  379. Luthardt-Laimer, G., and Roth, G. 1983. Reduction of visual inhibition to stationary prey by early experience in Salamandra salamandra (L.). Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 63: 294–302.Google Scholar
  380. MacArthur, R.H. 1972. Geographical Ecology. Harper and Row, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  381. MacArthur, R.H., and Pianka, E.R. 1966. On optimal use of a patchy environment. American Naturalist, 100: 603–609.Google Scholar
  382. Macdonald, D.W. 1980. The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, as a predator upon earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris. Zietschrift fur Tierpsycologie, 52: 171–200.Google Scholar
  383. Magnhagen, C., and Wiederholm, A.M. 1982. Food selectivity versus prey availability - a study using the marine fish Pomatoschistus microps. Oecologia, 55: 311–315.Google Scholar
  384. Marden, J.H. 1984. Remote perception of floral nectar by bumblebees. Oecologia, 64: 232–240.Google Scholar
  385. Marden, J.H., and Waddington, K.D. 1981. Floral choices by honeybees in relation to the relative distances to flowers. Physiological Entomology, 6: 431–435.Google Scholar
  386. Markowitz, H. 1959. Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of Investments. Wiley, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  387. Marks, J.S., and Marti, C.D. 1984. Feeding Ecology of sympatric barn owls and long-eared owls in Ikaho. Ornis Scandinavica, 15: 135–143.Google Scholar
  388. Marten, G.C. 1973. An optimization equation for predation. Ecology, 54: 92–101.Google Scholar
  389. Martindale, S. 1982. Nest defense and central place foraging: a model and experiment. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 10: 85–90.Google Scholar
  390. Martindale, S. 1983. Foraging patterns of nesting Gila Woodpeckers. Ecology, 64: 888–898.Google Scholar
  391. Marx, K. 1934. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. (Translated from the German, seventh printing, 1977 ). Progress Publishers, Moscow, U.S.S.R.Google Scholar
  392. Mattson, W.J., Jr. 1980. Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11: 119–161.Google Scholar
  393. Maynard Smith, J. 1966. The Theory of Evolution. Second edition. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, U.K.Google Scholar
  394. Maynard Smith, J. 1978. Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 9: 31–56.Google Scholar
  395. Maynard Smith, J. 1984. Game theory and the evolution of behaviour. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 7: 95–125.Google Scholar
  396. Mayr, E. 1975. The unity of the genotype. Biologisches Zentralblatt, 94: 377–388.Google Scholar
  397. Mayr, E. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance. Belknap Press, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  398. Mayr, E. 1983. How to carry out the adaptationist program? American Naturalist, 121: 324–334.Google Scholar
  399. Mazur, J.E. 1981. Optimization theory fails to predict performance of pigeons in a two-response situation. Science, 214: 823–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Mazur, J.E. 1983. Reply to Staddon and Hinson. Science, 221: 977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. McCleery, R.H. 1978. Optimal behaviour sequences. In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach, Second edition (ed. by J.R. Krebs & N.B. Davies ), pp. 377–410. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  402. McClintock, J.B., and Lawrence, J.M. 1981. An optimization study on the feeding behaviour of Luidia clathrata Say (Echinodermata:Asteroidea). Marine Behavioral Physiology, 7: 263–275.Google Scholar
  403. McFarland, D.J., and Houston, A.I. 1981. Quantitative Ethology - The State Space Approach. Pitman Publishing, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  404. McNair, J.N. 1979. A generalized model of optimal diets. Theoretical Population Biology, 15: 159–170.Google Scholar
  405. McNair, J.N. 1981. A stochastic foraging model with predator training effects. II. Optimal diets. Theoretical Population Biology, 19: 147–162.Google Scholar
  406. McNair, J.N. 1982. Optimal giving-up times and the marginal value theorem. American Naturalist, 119: 511–529.Google Scholar
  407. McNair, J.N. 1983. A class of patch - use strategies. American Zoologist, 23: 303–313.Google Scholar
  408. McNamara, J. 1982. Optimal patch use in a stochastic environment. Theoretical Population Biology, 21: 269–288.Google Scholar
  409. McNamara, J., and Houston, A.I. 1980. The application of statistical decision theory to Animal Behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 85: 673–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. McNamara, J., and Houston, A.I. 1982. Short-term behavior and lifetime fitness. In: Functional Ontogeny (ed. by D.J. McFarland ), pp. 60–87. Pitman Books, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  411. McSweeney, F.K. 1975. Concurrent schedule responding as a function of body weight. Animal Learning and Behaviour, 3: 264–270.Google Scholar
  412. Mellgren, R.L. 1982. Foraging in a simulated natural environment: there’s a rat loose in the lab. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 38: 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Menzel, E.W., and Wyers, E.J. 1981. Cognitive aspects of foraging behavior. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 355–377. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  414. Metcalfe, N.B., and Furness, R.W. 1984. Changing priorities: the effect of pre-migratory fattening on the trade-off between foraging and vigilance. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 15: 203–206.Google Scholar
  415. Meyerriecks, A.J. 1959. Foot-stirring feeding behaviour in herons. Wilson Bulletin, 71: 153–158.Google Scholar
  416. Meyerriecks, A.J. 1966. Additional observations on “foot stirring” feeding behaviour in herons. Auk, 83: 471–472.Google Scholar
  417. Meyerriecks, A.J. 1971. Further observations on the use of the feet by foraging herons. Wilson Bulletin, 83: 435–438.Google Scholar
  418. Michod, R.E. 1984. Constraints on adaptation, with special reference to social behaviour. In: A New Ecology: Novel Approaches to Interactive Systems (ed. by P.W. Price, C.N. Slobodchikoff, & W.S. Gaud ), pp. 253–278. Wiley, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  419. Milinski, M. 1979. Evolutionarily stable feeding strategy in sticklebacks. Zietschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 51: 36–40.Google Scholar
  420. Milinski, M. 1982. Optimal foraging: the influence of intraspecific competition of diet selection. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 11: 109–115.Google Scholar
  421. Milinski, M. 1984a. Competitive resource sharing: an experimental test of a learning rule for ESSs. Animal Behaviour, 32: 233–242.Google Scholar
  422. Milinski, M. 1984b. A predator’s costs of overcoming the confusion-effect of swarming prey. Animal Behaviour, 32: 1157–1162.Google Scholar
  423. Milinski, M. 1984c. Parasites determine a predator’s optimal feeding strategy. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 15: 35–37.Google Scholar
  424. Milinski, M., and Heller, R. 1978. Influence of a predator on the optimal foraging behaviour of sticklebacks (Gasterostrus aculeatus L.). Nature, 275: 642–644.Google Scholar
  425. Miller, H.L., Jr., and Loveland, D.H. 1974. Matching when the number of response alternatives is large. Animal Learning Behavior, 2: 106–110.Google Scholar
  426. Miller, M.R. 1975. Gut morphology of mallards in relation to diet quality. Journal of Wildlife Management, 39: 168–173.Google Scholar
  427. Mills, S.K., and Beatty, J.H. 1979. The propensity interpretation of fitness. Philosophy of Science, 46: 263–286.Google Scholar
  428. Mitchell, R. 1981. Insect behaviour, resource exploitation and fitness. Annual Review of Entomology, 26: 373–396.Google Scholar
  429. Mittelbach, G.G. 1981. Foraging efficiency and body size: a study of optimal diet and habitat use by bluegills. Ecology, 62: 1370–1386.Google Scholar
  430. Mittelbach, G.G. 1983. Optimal foraging and growth in bluegills. Oecologia, 59: 157–162.Google Scholar
  431. Moermond, T., and Denslow, J.S. 1983. Fruit choice in neotropical birds: effects of fruit type and accessibility on selectivity. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 407–420.Google Scholar
  432. Moller, H. 1983. Foraging Strategies of Red Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L.) in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Plantation. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, U.K.Google Scholar
  433. Monod, J. 1972. Chance and Necessity. Collins, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  434. Montgomerie, R.D., Eadie, J. McA., and Harder, L.D. 1984. What do foraging hummingbirds maximize? Oecologia, 63: 357–363.Google Scholar
  435. Moore, J.A. 1981. The effects of information networks in hunter-gatherer societies. In: Hunter-gatherer Foraging Strategies (ed. by B. Winterhalder & E.A. Smith ), pp. 194–217. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  436. Moore, P.J. 1984. Foraging and social behaviour of the white-faced heron at Pauatahanui inlet. Notornis, 31: 285–299.Google Scholar
  437. Moore, W.J. 1965. Masticatory function and skull growth. Journal of Zoology, 146: 123–131.Google Scholar
  438. Moran, P.A.P. 1964. On the non-existence of adaptive topographies. Annales of Human Genetics, London, 27: 383–393.Google Scholar
  439. Moray, N., and Connolly, K. 1963. A possible case of genetic assimilation of behavior. Nature, 199: 358–360.Google Scholar
  440. Moreno, J. 1984. Search strategies of wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and stonechats (Saxicola torquata): adaptive variation in perch height, search time, sally distance and inter-perch move length. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53: 147–159.Google Scholar
  441. Morrison, D.W. 1978. On the optimal searching strategy for refuging predators. American Naturalist, 112: 925–934.Google Scholar
  442. Morse, D.H. 1980. Behavioural Mechanisms in Ecology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  443. Munger, J.C. 1984. Optimal foraging? Patch use by horned lizards (Ignanidae: Phynosoma). American Naturalist, 123: 654–680.Google Scholar
  444. Myers, J.P. 1983. In: Perspectives in Ornithology (ed. by G.A. Clark & A.H. Brush), pp. 216–221. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  445. Nadav, N. 1984. Feeding frequencies of nesting blue tits (Parsus caerulens) costs, benefits and a model of optimal feeding frequency. Oecologia, 65: 125–137.Google Scholar
  446. Nagy, K.A., Huey, R.B., and Bennett, A.F. 1984. Field energetics and foraging mode of kalahari lacertid lizards. Ecology, 65: 588–596.Google Scholar
  447. Norberg, R.A. 1977. An ecological theory on foraging time and energetics and choice of optimal food-searching method. Journal of Animal Ecology, 46: 511–529.Google Scholar
  448. Norberg, R.A. 1981. Optimal flight speed in birds when feeding young. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50: 473–477.Google Scholar
  449. Norberg, R.A. 1983. Optimal locomotion modes of foraging birds in trees. Ibis, 125: 172–180.Google Scholar
  450. Norton-Griffiths, M. 1968. The Feeding Behaviour of the Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus). Ph.D. Thesis, Oxford University, U.K.Google Scholar
  451. Nudds, T.D. 1980. Forage “preference”: theoretical considerations of diet selection by deer. Journal of Wildlife Management, 44: 735–740.Google Scholar
  452. Nudds, T.D. 1982. Theoretical considerations of diet selection by deer: a reply. Journal of Wildlife Management, 46: 257–258.Google Scholar
  453. Nunez, J.A. 1982. Honeybee foraging strategies at a food source in relation to its distance from the hive and the rate of sugar flow. Journal of Apical Research, 21: 139–150.Google Scholar
  454. Oaten, A. 1977. Optimal foraging in patches: a case for stochasticity. Theoretical Population Biology, 12: 263–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. O’Brien, W.J., Slade, N.A., and Vinyard, G.L. 1976. Apparent size as the determinant of prey selection by bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirum). Ecology, 57: 1304–1310.Google Scholar
  456. O’Connell, J.F., and Hawkes, K. 1981. Alyawasa plant use and optimal foraging theory. In: Hunter-gatherer Foraging Strategies (ed. by B. Winterhalder & E.A. Smith ), pp. 99–125. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  457. O’Grady, R.T. 1984. Evolutionary theory and teleology. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 107: 563–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Ohguchi, O., and Aoki, K. 1983. Effects of colony need for water on optimal food choice in honeybees. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 12: 77–84.Google Scholar
  459. Ollason, J.G. 1980. Learning to forage - optimally? Theoretical Population Biology, 18: 44–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. Ollason, J.G. 1983. Behavioural consequences of hunting by expectation: a simulation study of foraging tactics. Theoretical Population Biology, 23: 323–346.Google Scholar
  461. Orians, G. 1971. Ecological aspects of behavior. In: Avian Biology, Vol. 1 (ed. by D.S. Farner & J.R. King ), pp. 513–546. Academic Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  462. Orians, G.H., and Pearson, N.E. 1979. On the theory of central place foraging. In: Analysis of Ecological Systems (ed. by D.J. Horn, G.R. Stairs, & R.D. Mitchell ), pp. 154–177. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  463. Ospovat, D. 1981. The Development of Darwin’s Theory: Natural History, Natural Theology, and Natural Selection 1838–1859. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  464. Oster, G., and Heinrich, B. 1976. Why do bumblebees major? A mathematical model. Ecological Monographs, 46: 129–133.Google Scholar
  465. Oster, G.F., and Rochlin, S.M. 1979. Optimization models in evolutionary biology. Lectures in Mathematics in the Life Sciences, 11: 21–88.Google Scholar
  466. Oster, G.F., and Wilson, E.O. 1978. Castle and Ecology in the Social Insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  467. Ostfeld, R.S. 1982. Foraging strategies and prey switching in the California sea otter. Oecologia, 53: 170–178.Google Scholar
  468. Owen-Smith, N., and Novellie, P. 1982. What should a clever ungulate eat? American Naturalist, 119: 151–178.Google Scholar
  469. Oyama, S. 1985. The Ontogeny of Information: Developmental Systems and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.Google Scholar
  470. Padilla, S.G. 1935. Further studies on the delayed pecking of chicks. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 20: 413–443.Google Scholar
  471. Palmer, A.R. 1981. Predator errors, foraging in unpredictable environments, and risk: the consequences of prey variation in handling time versus net energy. American Naturalist, 118: 908–915.Google Scholar
  472. Palmer, A.R. 1984. Prey selection by thaidid gastropods: some observational and experimental field tests of foraging models. Oecologia, 62: 162–172.Google Scholar
  473. Parker, G.A. 1978. Searching for mates. In: Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach (ed. by J.R. Krebs & N.B. Davies ), pp. 214–244. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  474. Parker, G.A., and Stuart, R.A. 1976. Animal behavior as a strategy optimizer: evolution of resource assessment strategies and optimal emigration thresholds. American Naturalist, 110: 1055–1076.Google Scholar
  475. Pastorok, R.A. 1980. The effects of predator hunger and food abundance on prey selection by Chaoborus larvae. Limnology and Oceanography, 25: 910–921.Google Scholar
  476. Pastorok, R.A. 1981. Prey vulnerability and size selection by Chaoborus larvae. Ecology, 62: 1311–1324.Google Scholar
  477. Phillips, N.W. 1984. Compensatory intake can be consistent with an optimal foraging model. American Naturalist, 123: 867–872.Google Scholar
  478. Pienkowski, M.W. 1983a. Changes in the foraging pattern of plovers in relation to environmental factors. Animal Behaviour, 31: 244–264.Google Scholar
  479. Pienkowski, M.W. 1983b. Surface activity of some intertidal invertebrates in relation to temperature and the foraging behaviour of their shore-bird predators. Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 11: 141–150.Google Scholar
  480. Pirlot, P., and Bernier, R. 1973. Preliminary remarks on the organ-function relation. In: The Methodological Unity of Science (ed. by M. Bunge ), pp. 71–83. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar
  481. Pleasants, J.M. 1981. Bumblebee response to variation in nectar availability. Ecology, 62: 1648–1661.Google Scholar
  482. Plowright, R.C., and Laverty, T.M. 1984. The Ecology and sociobiology of bumblebees. Annual Review of Entomology, 29: 175–199.Google Scholar
  483. Polsky, R.H. 1977. The ontogeny of predatory behaviour in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus a. auratus). 1. The influence of age and experience. Behaviour, 61: 26–57.Google Scholar
  484. Porter, K.G., Gerritsen, J., and Orcutt, J.D., Jr. 1982. The effect of food concentration on swimming patterns, feeding behavior, ingestion, assimilation, and respiration by Daphnia. Limnology and Oceanography, 27: 935–949.Google Scholar
  485. Porter, K.G., Orcutt, J.D., Jr., and Gerritsen, J. 1983. Functional response and fitness in a generalist filter feeder, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea). Ecology, 64: 735–742.Google Scholar
  486. Power, M.E. 1984. Habitat quality and the distribution of algae-grazing catfish in a Panamanian stream. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53: 357–374.Google Scholar
  487. Pratt, J.W. 1964. Risk aversion in the small and in the large. Econometrica, 32: 122–136.Google Scholar
  488. Price, M.V. 1983. Ecological consequences of body size: a model for patch choice in desert rodents. Oecologia, 59: 384–392.Google Scholar
  489. Price, M.V., and Heinz, K.M. 1984. Effects of body size, seed density and soil characteristics on rates of seed harvest by heteromyid rodents. Oecologia, 61: 420–425.Google Scholar
  490. Pubols, B.H. 1962. Constant versus variable delay of reinforcement. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 55: 52–56.Google Scholar
  491. Pulliam, H.R. 1974. On the theory of optimal diets. American Naturalist, 108: 59–75.Google Scholar
  492. Pulliam, H.R. 1975. Diet optimization with nutrient constraints. American Naturalist, 109: 765–769.Google Scholar
  493. Pulliam, H.R. 1976. The principle of optimal behaviour and the theory of communities. In: Perspectives in Ethology, Volume 2 (ed. by P.P.G. Bateson & P.H. Klopfer ), pp. 311–332. Plenum Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  494. Pulliam, H.R. 1980a. Do chipping sparrows forage optimally? Ardea, 68: 75–82.Google Scholar
  495. Pulliam, H.R. 1980b. On digesting a theory. Auk, 97: 418–420.Google Scholar
  496. Pulliam, H.R. 1981a. Learning to forage optimally. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 379–388. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  497. Pulliam, H.R. 1981b. Optimal management of optimal foragers. In: Renewable Resource Management (ed. by T.J. Vincent & J.M. Skowronski ), pp. 46–53. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, West Germany.Google Scholar
  498. Pulliam, H.R., and Millikan. 1982. Social organization in the non-reproductive season. Avian Biology, 6: 169–197.Google Scholar
  499. Puttick, G.M. 1984. Foraging and activity patterns in wintering shorebirds. In: Shorebirds: Migration and Foraging Behaviour, Behaviour of Marine Animals, Volume 6 (ed. by J. Burger & B.L. Olla ), pp. 203–231. Plenum Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  500. Pyke, G.H. 1978a. Optimal foraging in hummingbirds: testing the marginal value theorem. American Zoologist, 18: 739–752.Google Scholar
  501. Pyke, G.H. 1978b. Are animals efficient harvesters? Animal Behaviour, 26: 241–250.Google Scholar
  502. Pyke, G.H. 1978c. Optimal foraging in bumblebees and coevolution with their plants. Oecologia, 36: 281–293.Google Scholar
  503. Pyke, G.H. 1978d. Optimal foraging: movement patterns of bumblebees between inflorescences. Theoretical Population Biology, 13: 72–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. Pyke, G.H. 1979. Optimal foraging in bumblebees: rule of movement between flowers within inflorescences. Animal Behaviour, 27: 1167–1181.Google Scholar
  505. Pyke, G.H. 1980. Optimal foraging in bumblebees: calculation of net rate of energy intake and optimal patch choice. Theoretical Population Biology, 17: 232–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Pyke, G.H. 1981a. Optimal travel speeds of animals. American Naturalist, 118: 475–487.Google Scholar
  507. Pyke, G.H. 1981b. Why hummingbirds hover and honeyeaters perch. Animal Behaviour, 29: 861–867.Google Scholar
  508. Pyke, G.H. 1981c. Honeyeater foraging: a test of optimal foraging theory. Animal Behaviour, 29: 878–888.Google Scholar
  509. Pyke, G.H. 1981d. Optimal foraging in hummingbirds. Rule of movement between inflorescences. Animal Behaviour, 29: 889–896.Google Scholar
  510. Pyke, G.H. 1981e. Optimal foraging in nectar-feeding animals and coevolution with their plants. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 19–38. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  511. Pyke, G.H. 1982. Foraging in bumblebees: rules of departure from an inflorescence. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 60: 417–428.Google Scholar
  512. Pyke, G.H. 1983. Animal movements: an optimal foraging approach. In: The Ecology of Animal Movements (ed. by I.R. Swingland & P.J. Greenwood ), pp. 7–31. Claredon Press, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  513. Pyke, G.H. 1984. Optimal foraging theory: a critical review. Annual Review of Ecology Systematics, 15: 523–575.Google Scholar
  514. Pyke, G.H., Pulliam, H.R., and Charnov, E.L. 1977. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Quarterly Review of Biology, 52: 137–154.Google Scholar
  515. Rabinowitch, V.E. 1965. The Role of Early Experience in the Development and Retention of Food Habits in Some Birds. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  516. Rajasilta, M., and Vuorinen, I. 1983. A field study of prey selection in planktivorous fish larvae. Oecologia, 59: 65–68.Google Scholar
  517. Rand, A.L. 1956. Foot-stirring as a feeding habit of wood ibis and other birds. American Midland Naturalist, 55: 96–100.Google Scholar
  518. Rapport, D.J. 1971. An optimization model of food selection. American Naturalist, 105: 575–586.Google Scholar
  519. Rapport, D.J. 1980. Optimal foraging for complementary resources. American Naturalist, 116: 324–346.Google Scholar
  520. Rapport, D.J. 1981. Foraging behavior of Stentor coeruleus: A microeconomic interpretation. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 77–93. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  521. Rapport, D.J., and Turner, J.E. 1977. Economic models in Ecology. Science, 195: 367–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. Real, L.A. 1980a. Fitness, uncertainty, and the role of diversification in evolution and behavior. American Naturalist, 115: 623–638.Google Scholar
  523. Real, L. 1980b. On uncertainty and the law of diminishing returns in evolution and behavior. In: Limits to Action: The Allocation of Individual Behavior (ed. by J.E.R. Staddon ), pp. 37–64. Academic Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  524. Real, L. 1981. Uncertainty and pollinator-plant interactions. The foraging behaviour of bees and wasps on artificial flowers. Ecology, 62: 20–26.Google Scholar
  525. Real, L., Ott, J., and Silverfine, E. 1982. On the tradeoff between the mean and the variance in foraging: effect of spatial distribution and color preference. Ecology, 63: 1617–1623.Google Scholar
  526. Rechten, C., Avery, M., and Stevens, A. 1983. Optimal prey selection - why do great tits show partial preferences. Animal Behaviour, 31: 576–584.Google Scholar
  527. Rechten, C., Krebs, J.R., and Houston, A.I. 1981. Great tits and conveyor belts - a correction for non-random prey distribution. Animal Behaviour, 29: 1276–1277.Google Scholar
  528. Regelmann, K. 1984a. Competitive resource sharing: a simulation model. Animal Behaviour, 32: 226–232.Google Scholar
  529. Regelmann, K. 1984b. A remark on the theory of risk-sensitive foraging. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 110: 217–222.Google Scholar
  530. Reichman, O.J. 1977. Optimization of diets through food preferences by heteromyid rodents. Ecology, 58: 454–457.Google Scholar
  531. Reichman, O.J. 1981. Factors influencing foraging in desert rodents. In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 195–213. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  532. Reidl, R. 1978. Order in Living Organisms. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K.Google Scholar
  533. Rice, W.R. 1983. Sensory modality: an example of its effect on optimal foraging behavior. Ecology, 64: 403–406.Google Scholar
  534. Richards, L.J. 1982. Prey selection by an intertidal beetle: field test of an optimal diet model. Oecologia, 55: 325–332.Google Scholar
  535. Richards, L.J. 1983. Hunger and the optimal diet. American Naturalist, 122: 326–334.Google Scholar
  536. Richter, C.P. 1943. Total self regulatory functions in animals and human beings. Harvey Lectures, 38: 63–103.Google Scholar
  537. Richter, C.P. 1953. Experimentally produced reactions to food poisoning in wild and domesticated rats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 56: 225–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  538. Richter, C.P., Holt, L.E., and Barelare, B., Jr. 1937. Vitamin B craving in rats. Science, 86: 354–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. Ringler, N.H. 1979. Selective predation by drift feeding brown trout Salmo trutta. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 36: 392–403.Google Scholar
  540. Robson, G.C., and Richards, O.W. 1936. The variation of animals in Nature. Longmans, Green and Co. London, U.K.Google Scholar
  541. Roitberg, B.O., and Prokopy, R.J. 1982. Influence of intertree distance on foraging behavior of Rhagoletis pomonella in the field. Ecological Entomology, 7: 437–442.Google Scholar
  542. Roitberg, R.D., van Lenteren, J.C., van Alphen, J.J.M., Galis, F., and Prokopy, R.J. 1982. Foraging behaviour of Rhagoletis pomonella, a parasite of hawthorn (Crataegus viridis), in Nature. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51: 307–325.Google Scholar
  543. Rosen, D.E. 1982. Teleostean interrelationships, morphological function and evolutionary inference. American Zoologist, 22: 2. 61–273.Google Scholar
  544. Rosen, D.E., and Buth, D.G. 1980. Empirical research versus neo-Darwinian speculation. Systematic Zoology, 29: 300–308.Google Scholar
  545. Rotenberry, J.T. 1980. Dietary relationships among shrubsteppe passerine birds: competition or opportunism in a variable environment? Ecological Monographs, 50: 93–110.Google Scholar
  546. Roughgarden, J. 1974. Niche width: biogeographic patterns among Anolis lizard populations. American Naturalist, 108, 29–442.Google Scholar
  547. Rudolph, S.G. 1982. Foraging strategies of American Kestrels during breeding. Ecology, 63: 1268–1276.Google Scholar
  548. Scheibling, R.E. 1981. Optimal foraging movements of Oreaster reticulatus (L.) (Echinodermata: Asteroidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 51: 173–185.Google Scholar
  549. Schlüter, D. 1981. Does the theory of optimal diets apply in complex environments? American Naturalist, 118: 138–147.Google Scholar
  550. Schlüter, D. 1982a. Optimal foraging in bats: some comments. American Naturalist, 119: 121–125.Google Scholar
  551. Schlüter, D. 1982b. Seed and patch selection by Galapagos ground finches: relating to foraging efficiency and food supply. Ecology, 63: 1106–1120.Google Scholar
  552. Schmid-Hempel, P. 1984. The importance of handling time for the flight directionality in bees. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 15: 303–309.Google Scholar
  553. Schneider, K.J. 1984. Dominance, predation, and optimal foraging in white-throated sparrow flocks. Ecology, 65: 1820–1827.Google Scholar
  554. Schneiria, T.C. 1956. The interrelationships of the “innate” and the “acquired” in instinctive behaviour. In: L’Instinct dans le Comportement des Animaux et de L’homme (ed. by P.P. Grasse ), pp. 387–452. Masson, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  555. Schneirla, T.C. 1957. The concept of development in comparative psychology. In: The Concept of Development (ed. by D.B. Harris ), pp. 78–108. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  556. Schneirla, T.C. 1965. Aspects of stimulation and organization in approach/withdrawal processes underlying vertebrate behavioural development. In: Advances in the Study of Behaviour, Volume I (ed. by D.S. Lehrman ), pp. 1–71. Academic Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  557. Schoener, T.W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11: 369–404.Google Scholar
  558. Schoener, T.W. 1979. Generality of the size-distance relation in models of optimal feeding. American Naturalist, 114: 902–914.Google Scholar
  559. Sibly, R.M., and McCleery, R.H. 1983. The distribution between feeding sites of herring gulls breeding at Walney Island, U.K. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 50–63.Google Scholar
  560. Sih, A. 1977. Optimal foraging theory used to deduce the energy available in the environment. Biotropica, 9: 216.Google Scholar
  561. Sih, A. 1979. Optimal diet: the relative importance of the parameters. American Naturalist, 113: 460–463.Google Scholar
  562. Sih, A. 1980a. Optimal foraging: partial consumption of prey. American Naturalist, 116: 281–290.Google Scholar
  563. Sih, A. 1980b. Optimal behaviour: can foragers balance two conflicting demands? Science, 210: 1041–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  564. Sih, A. 1982. Optimal patch use: variation in selective pressure for efficient foraging. American Naturalist, 120: 666–685.Google Scholar
  565. Sih, A. 1984. Optimal behaviour and density-dependent predation. American Naturalist, 123: 314–326.Google Scholar
  566. Sinha, C. 1984. A socio-naturalistic approach to human development. In: Beyond Neo-Darwinism: An Introduction to the New Evolutionary Paradigm (ed. by M.W. Ho & P.T. Saunders ), pp. 331–362. Academic Press, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  567. Sites, J.W., Jr. 1978. The foraging strategy of the dusky salamander, Desmognathus fuscus (Amphibia, Urodela, Plethodontidae): An empirical approach to predation theory. Journal of Herpetology, 12: 373–383.Google Scholar
  568. Slatkin, M. 1978. On the equilibration of fitness by natural selection. American Naturalist, 112: 845–859.Google Scholar
  569. Smith, E.A. 1981. The application of optimal foraging theory to the analysis of hunter-gatherer group size. In: Hunter-gatherer Foraging Strategies (ed. by B. Winterhaider & E.A. Smith ), pp. 36–65. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  570. Smith, J.N.M. 1974. The food searching behavior of two European thrushes. II. The adaptiveness of the search patterns. Behaviour, 49: 1–61.Google Scholar
  571. Smith, J.N.M., and Dawkins, R. 1971. The hunting behaviour of individual great tits in relation to spatial variations in their food density. Animal Behaviour, 19: 695–706.Google Scholar
  572. Smith, J.N.M., Grant, P.R., Grant, B.R., Abbot, I.J., and Abbot, L.K. 1978. Seasonal variation in feeding habits of Darwin’s ground finches. Ecology, 59: 1137–1150.Google Scholar
  573. Smith, J.P., Maybee, J.S., and Maybee, F.M. 1979. Effects of increasing distance to food and deprivation level on food hoarding in Rattus norvegicus. Behavioural Neural Biology, 27: 302–318.Google Scholar
  574. Smith, J.N.M., and Sweatman, H.P.A. 1974. Food searching behaviour of tit mice in patchy environments. Ecology, 55: 1216–1232.Google Scholar
  575. Smith, W.H. 1965. Observations on the flora of the alimentary tract of animals and factors affecting its composition. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 89: 95–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Staddon, J.E.R. 1980. Optimality analyses of operant behavior and relation to optimal foraging. In: Limits to Action: The Allocation of Individual Behaviour (ed. by J.E.R. Staddon ), pp. 101–141. Academic Press, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  577. Staddon, J.E.R., and Gendron, R.P. 1983. Optimal detection of cryptic prey may lead to predator switching. American Naturalist, 122: 843–848.Google Scholar
  578. Staddon, J.E.R., and Hinson, J.M. 1983. Optimization: a result or a mechanism? Science, 221: 976–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  579. Stamp, N.E. 1982. Searching behaviour of parasitoids for web-making caterpillars: a test of optimal searching theory. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51: 387–395.Google Scholar
  580. Stamps, J., Tanaka, S., and Krishman, V.V. 1981. The relationship between selectivity and food abundance in a juvenile lizard. Ecology, 62: 1079–1092.Google Scholar
  581. Stanton, M.L. 1982. Searching in a patchy environment: Foodplant selection by Colias periphyle butterflies. Ecology, 53: 839–853.Google Scholar
  582. Stanton, M.L. 1984. Short-term learning and the searching accuracy of egg-laying butterflies. Animal Behaviour, 32: 33–40.Google Scholar
  583. Stapanian, M.A., and Smith, C.C. 1978. A model for seed scatterhoarding: coevolution of fox squirrels and black walnuts. Ecology, 59: 884–896.Google Scholar
  584. Stearns, S.C. 1982. On fitness. In: Environmental Adaptation and Evolution (ed. by D. Mossakowski & G. Roth ), pp. 3 - 17. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany.Google Scholar
  585. Stein, R.A. 1977. Selective predation, optimal foraging, and the predator-prey interaction between fish and crayfish. Ecology, 58: 1237–1253.Google Scholar
  586. Stein, R.A., Goodman, C.A., and Marschall, E.A. 1984. Using time and energetic measures of cost in estimating prey value for fish predators. Ecology, 65: 702–715.Google Scholar
  587. Stenseth, N.C. 1981. Optimal food selection: some further considerations with special reference to the grazer-hunter distinction. American Naturalist, 117: 457–475.Google Scholar
  588. Stenseth, N.C. 1984. Evolutionary stable strategies in food selection models with fitness sets. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 109: 489–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  589. Stenseth, N.C., and Hansson, L. 1979. Optimal food selection: a graphic model. American Naturalist, 113: 373–389.Google Scholar
  590. Stenseth, N.C., Hansson, L., and Myllymaki, A. 1977. Food selection of the field vole Microtus agrestis. Oikos, 29: 511–524.Google Scholar
  591. Stephens, D.W. 1981. The logic of risk-sensitive foraging preferences. Animal Behaviour, 29: 628–629.Google Scholar
  592. Stephens, D.W. 1985. How important are partial preferences? Animal Behaviour, 33: 667–669.Google Scholar
  593. Stephens, D.W., and Charnov, E.L. 1982. Optimal foraging: some simple stochastic models. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 10: 251–263.Google Scholar
  594. Stewart-Oaten, A. 1982. Minimax strategies for a predatory-prey game. Theoretical Population Biology, 22: 410–424.Google Scholar
  595. Strong, D.R., Lawton, J.H., and Southwood, R. 1984. Insects on Plants. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  596. Sutherland, W.J. 1982a. Do oystercatchers select the most profitable cockles? Animal Behaviour, 30:–861.Google Scholar
  597. Sutherland, W.J. 1982b. Spatial variation in the predation of cockles by Oystercatchers at Traeth Melynog, Anglessey II. The pattern of mortality. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51: 491–500.Google Scholar
  598. Sutherland, W.J. 1983. Aggregation and the “ideal free” distribution. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 821–828.Google Scholar
  599. Taghon, G.L. 1981. Beyond selection: optimal ingestion rate as a function of food value. American Naturalist, 118: 202–214.Google Scholar
  600. Taghon, G.L. 1982. Optimal foraging by deposit feeding invertebrates - roles of particle size and organic coating. Oecologia, 52: 295–304.Google Scholar
  601. Taghon, G.L., and Jumars, P.A. 1984. Variable ingestion rate and its role in optimal foraging behavior of marine deposit feeders. Ecology, 65: 549–558.Google Scholar
  602. Taghon, G.L., Self, R.F.L., and Jumars, P.A. 1978. Predicting particle selection by deposit feeders: a model and its implications. Limnology and Oceanography, 23: 752–759.Google Scholar
  603. Taylor, F. 1977. Foraging behavior of ants: experiments with two species of Myrmecine ants. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2: 147–167.Google Scholar
  604. Taylor, R.J. 1984. Foraging in the eastern grey kangaroo and the wallaroo. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53: 65–74.Google Scholar
  605. Templeton, A.R., and Lawlor, L.R. 1981. The fallacy of the averages in ecological optimization theory. American Naturalist, 117: 390–393.Google Scholar
  606. Tepedino, V.J., and Parker, F.D. 1982. Interspecific differences in the relative importance of pollen and nectar to bee species foraging on sunflowers. Environmental Entomology, 11: 246–250.Google Scholar
  607. Terriere, L.C. 1984. Induction of detoxication enzymes in insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 29: 71–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  608. Thompson, D.B.A., and Barnard, C.J. 1984. Prey selection by plovers: optimal foraging in mixed-species groups. Animal Behaviour, 32: 554–563.Google Scholar
  609. Tinbergen, J.M. 1976. How starlings (Strurnus vulgaris L.) apportion their foraging time in a virtual single-prey situation on a meadow. Ardea, 64: 155–170.Google Scholar
  610. Tinbergen, J.M. 1981. Foraging decisions in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.). Ardea, 69: 1–67.Google Scholar
  611. Tinbergen, L. 1960. The natural control of insects in pinewoods. I. Factors influencing the intensity of predation by songbirds. Archives Neerlandaises de Zoologie, 13: 265–343.Google Scholar
  612. Tinbergen, N. 1962. Foot-paddling in gulls. British Birds, 55: 117–119.Google Scholar
  613. Tinbergen, N., Broekhuysen, G.J., Feekes, F., Houghton, J.C.W., Kruuk, H., and Szulc, E. 1962. Egg shell removal by the black headed gull, Larus ridibundus L.: a behaviour component of camouflage. Behaviour, 19: 74–117.Google Scholar
  614. Townsend, C.R., and Hildrew, A.G. 1980. Foraging in a patchy environment by a predatory net-spinning caddis larva - a test of optimal foraging theory. Oceologia, 47: 219–221.Google Scholar
  615. Townsend, C.R., and Hughes, R.N. 1981. Maximizing net energy returns from foraging. In: Physiological Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach to Resource Use (ed. by C.R. Townsend & P. Calow ), pp. 86–108. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  616. Traniello, J.F.A., Fujita, M.S., and Bowen, R.V. 1984. Ant foraging behaviour: ambient temperature influences prey selection. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 15: 65–68.Google Scholar
  617. Travis, J. 1982. A method for the statistical analysis of time-energy budgets. Ecology, 63: 19–25.Google Scholar
  618. Tsumori, A. 1967. New acquired behaviour and social interactions of Japanese monkeys. In: Social Communication Among Primates (ed. by S.A. Altman ), pp. 207–219. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  619. Tsumori, A., Kawai, M., and Motoyoshi, R. 1965. Delayed response of wild Japanese monkeys by the sand-digging method: 1, case of the Koshima troop. Primates, 6: 195–212.Google Scholar
  620. Tullock, G. 1970. Switching in general predators: a comment. Ecological Society of America, Bulletin, 51: 21–23.Google Scholar
  621. Tullock, G. 1971. The coal tit as a careful shopper. American Naturalist, 105: 77–80.Google Scholar
  622. Turelli, M., Gillespie, J.H., and Schoener, T.W. 1982. The fallacy of the fallacy of the averages in ecological optimization. American Naturalist, 119: 879–884.Google Scholar
  623. Turner, A.K. 1982. Optimal foraging by the swallow (Hirundo rustica L.) prey size selection. Animal Behaviour, 30: 862–872.Google Scholar
  624. Turner, J.R.G. 1969. The basic theorems of natural selection: a naive approach. Heredity, 24: 75–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  625. Unger, P.A., and Lewis, W.M. 1983. Selective predation with respect to body size in a population of the fish Xeromelaniris venezuelae (Atherinidae). Ecology, 64: 1136–1144.Google Scholar
  626. Vadas, R.L. 1977. Preferential feeding - optimization strategy in sea urchins. Ecological Monographs, 47: 337–371.Google Scholar
  627. Vaughan, W. 1981. Melioration, matching and maximization. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, 36: 141–149.Google Scholar
  628. Vaughan, W., Jr., and Herrnstein, R.J. In press. In: Advances in Behavioural Economics, Volume (ed. by L. Green & J. Kagel). Ablex, Norwood, New Jersey, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  629. Vickery, W.L. 1984. Optimal diet models and rodent food consumption. Animal Behaviour, 32: 340–348.Google Scholar
  630. Visser, M. 1981. Prediction of switching and counter-switching based on optimal foraging. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 55: 129–138.Google Scholar
  631. Visser, M. 1982. Prey selection by the 3-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). Oecologia, 55: 395–402.Google Scholar
  632. Waage, J.K. 1979. Foraging for patchily-distributed hosts by the parasitoid Nemeritis canescens. Journal of Animal Ecology, 48: 353–371.Google Scholar
  633. Waddington, C.H. 1954. The integration of gene-controlled processes and its bearing on evolution. Caryologia, Supplement to Volume 6, 232–245.Google Scholar
  634. Waddington, C.H. 1957. The Strategy of the Genes. Allen and Unwin, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  635. Waddington, C.H. 1975. The Evolution of an Evolutionist. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  636. Waddington, C.H. 1977. Tools For Thought. Jonathan Cape, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  637. Waddington, K.D. 1982. Optimal diet theory: sequential and simultaneous encounter models. Oikos, 39: 278–280.Google Scholar
  638. Waddington, K.D., Allen, T., and Heinrich, B. 1981. Floral preferences of bumblebees (Bombus edwardsii) in relation to intermittent versus continuous rewards. Animal Behaviour, 29: 779–784.Google Scholar
  639. Waddington, K.D., and Heinrich, B. 1979. The foraging movements of bumblebees on vertical “inflorescenses”: an experimental analysis. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 134: 113–117.Google Scholar
  640. Waddington, K.D., and Heinrich, B. 1981. Patterns of movement and floral choice in foraging bees. In: Foraging.Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 215–230. Garland STPM Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  641. Waddington, K.D., and Holden, L.R. 1979. Optimal foraging: on flower selection by bees. American Naturalist, 114: 179–196.Google Scholar
  642. Wainwright, S.A., Biggs, W.D., Curry, J.D., and Gosline, J.M. 1976. Mechanical Design in Organisms. Edward Arnold, London, U.K.Google Scholar
  643. Walde, S.J., and Davies, R.W. 1984. The effect of intraspecific interference on Kogotus nonus (Plecoptera) foraging behaviour. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62: 2221–2226.Google Scholar
  644. Wankowski, J.W.J. 1979. Morphological limitations, prey size selectivity, and growth response in juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Journal of Fish Biology, 14: 89–100.Google Scholar
  645. Watanabe, J.M. 1984. Food preference, food quality and diets of three herbivorous gastropods (Trochidae: Tegula) in a temperate kelp forest habitat. Oecologia, 62: 47–52.Google Scholar
  646. Webster, G., and Goodwin, B.C. 1982. The origin of species: a structuralist approach. Journal of Social and Biological Structure, 5: 15–47.Google Scholar
  647. Weigl, P.D., and Hanson, E.V. 1980. Observational learning and the feeding behaviour of the red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus: the ontogeny of optimization. Ecology, 61: 213–218.Google Scholar
  648. Weihs, D. 1975. An optimum swimming speed of fish based on feeding efficiency. Israel Journal of Technology, 13: 163–169.Google Scholar
  649. Weis, A.E. 1983. Patterns of parasitism by Torymus capite on hosts distributed in small patches. Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 867–877.Google Scholar
  650. Wells, H., and Wells, P.H. 1983. Honey bee foraging Ecology: Optimal diet, minimal uncertainty, or individual constancy? Journal of Animal Ecology, 52: 829–836.Google Scholar
  651. Werner, E.E. 1974. The fish size, prey size, handling time relation in several sunfish and some implications. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 31: 1531–1536.Google Scholar
  652. Werner, E.E. 1977. Species packing and niche complementarity in three sunfishes. American Naturalist, 111: 553–578.Google Scholar
  653. Werner, E.E., Gilliam, J.F., Hall, D.J., and Mittelbach, G.G. 1983. An experimental test of the effects of predation risk on habitat use in fish. Ecology, 64: 1540–1548.Google Scholar
  654. Werner, E.E., and Hall, D.J. 1974. Optimal foraging and the size selection of prey by the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Ecology, 55: 1042–1052.Google Scholar
  655. Werner, E.E., and Mittelbach. 1981. Optimal foraging: field tests of diet choice and habitat switching. American Zoologist, 21: 813–829.Google Scholar
  656. Werner, E.E., Mittelbach, G.G., and Hall, D.J. 1981. The role of foraging profitability and experience in habitat use by the bluegill sunfish. Ecology, 62: 116–125.Google Scholar
  657. Werner, E.E., Mittelbach, G.G., Hall, D.J., and Gilliam, J.F. 1983. Experimental tests of optimal habitat use in fish: the role of relative habitat profitability. Ecology, 64: 1525–1539.Google Scholar
  658. Westoby, M. 1974. An analysis of diet selection by large generalist herbivores. American Naturalist, 108: 290–304.Google Scholar
  659. Westoby, M. 1978. What are the biological bases of varied diets? American Naturalist, 112: 627–631.Google Scholar
  660. Whitham, T.G. 1977. Coevolution of foraging in Bombus and nectar dispensing in Chilopsis. A last dreg theory. Science, 197: 593–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  661. Whitham, T.G. 1980. The theory of habitat selection: examined and extended using Pemphigus aphids. American Naturalist, 115: 449–466.Google Scholar
  662. Wiens, J.A. 1977. On competition and variable environments. American Scientist, 65: 590–597.Google Scholar
  663. Wiens, J.A. 1984. On understanding a non-equilibrium world: Myth and reality in community patterns and processes. In: Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence (ed. by D.R. Strong, D. Simberloff, L.G. Abek, & A.B. Thistle ), pp. 439–457. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  664. Wilson, D.S. 1976. Deducing the energy available in the environment: an application of optimal foraging theory. Biotropica, 8: 96–103.Google Scholar
  665. Wilson, D.S., and Hedrick, A. 1982. Speciation and the economics of mate choice. Evolutionary Theory, 6: 15–24.Google Scholar
  666. Wilson, E.O. 1980a. Caste and division of labor in leaf-cutter ants (Hymenoptera: formicidae: Atta) 1. The overall pattern in A. sedens. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 7: 143–156.Google Scholar
  667. Wilson, E.O. 1980b. Caste and division of labour in leaf-cutter ants (Hymenoptera: formicidae: Atta) 11. The ergonic optimization of leaf cutting. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 7: 157–165.Google Scholar
  668. Willson, M.F. 1971. Seed selection in some North American finches. Condor, 73: 415–427.Google Scholar
  669. Winterhaider, B. 1981a. Optimal foraging strategies and hunter-gather research in Anthropology: Theory and models. In: Hunter-gatherer Foraging Strategies (ed. by B. Winterhaider & E.A. Smith ), pp. 13–35. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  670. Winterhaider, B. 1981b. Foraging strategies in the boreal forest: an analysis of Cree hunting and gathering. In: Hunter-gatherer Foraging Strategies (ed. by B. Winterhaider & E.A. Smith ), pp. 66–98. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  671. Winterhaider, B. 1983. Opportunity-cost foraging models for stationary and mobile predators. American Naturalist, 122: 73–84.Google Scholar
  672. Winterhaider, B., and Smith, E.A. 1981. Hunter-gather Foraging Strategies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  673. Wolf, L.L., and Hainsworth, F.R. 1983. Economics of foraging strategies in sunbirds and hummingbirds. In: Behavioural Energetics: the Cost of Survival in Vertebrates (ed. by W.P. Aspey & S.I. Lustick ), pp. 223–264 ). Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  674. Ydenburg, R.C. 1984. Great tits and giving-up times: decision rules for leaving patches. Behaviour, 90: 1–24.Google Scholar
  675. Yesner, D.R. 1981. Archeological applications of optimal foraging theory: harvest strategies of Aleut hunter-gatherers. In: Hunter-gatherer Foraging Strategies (ed. by B. Winterhaider & E.A. Smith ), pp. 148–170. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  676. Young, P.T. 1948. Appetite, palatability and feeding habit: a critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 45: 289–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  677. Zach, R. 1979. Shell dropping - decision making and optimal foraging in North-western crows. Behaviour, 68: 106–117.Google Scholar
  678. Zach, R., and Falls, J.B. 1976a. Ovenbird (Aves: Parulidae) hunting behaviour in a patchy environment. An experimental study. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54: 1863–1879.Google Scholar
  679. Zach, R., and Falls, J.B. 1976b. Do ovenbirds (Aves: Parulidae) hunt by expectation? Canadian Journal of Zoology, 54: 1894–1903.Google Scholar
  680. Zach, R., and Falls, J.B. 1978. Prey selection by captive ovenbirds (Aves: Parulidae). Journal of Animal Ecology, 47: 929–943.Google Scholar
  681. Zach, R., and Falls, J.B. 1979. Foraging and territoriality of male ovenbirds (Aves: Parulidae) in a heterogeneous habitat. Journal of Animal Ecology, 48: 33–52.Google Scholar
  682. Zach, R., and Smith, J.N.M. 1981. Optimal foraging in wild birds? In: Foraging Behavior: Ecological, Ethological and Psychological Approaches (ed. by A.C. Kamil & T.D. Sargent ), pp. 95–109. Garland STPM Press, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  683. Zimmerman, M. 1981. Optimal foraging, plant density and the marginal value theorem. Oecologia, 49: 148–153.Google Scholar
  684. Zimmerman, M. 1979. Optimal foraging: a case for random movement. Oecologia, 43: 261–267.Google Scholar
  685. Zimmerman, M. 1982. Optimal foraging: random movement by pollen collecting bumblebees. Oecologia, 53: 394–398.Google Scholar
  686. Zimmerman, M. 1983a. Calculating nectar production rates: residual nectar and optimal foraging. Oecologia, 58: 258–259.Google Scholar
  687. Zimmerman, M. 1983b. Plant reproduction and optimal foraging: experimental nectar manipulations in Delphinium nelsonii. Oikos, 41: 57–63.Google Scholar
  688. Zwarts, L., and Drent, R.H. 1981. Prey depletion and regulation of predator density: Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) feeding on mussels (Mytilus edulis). In: Feeding and Survival Strategies of Estuarine Organisms (ed. by N.V. Jones & W.J. Wolff ), pp. 193–216. Plenum Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell D. Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations