Inversion of Surfactant-Oil-Brine Emulsified Systems: Generalized Mapping and Property Transitions
Provided that the system contains a reasonable amount of surfactant, the emulsion type essentially depends upon two factors: (1) the water/oil ratio (WOR), and (2) the physico-chemical formulation. The latter may involve such variables as surfactant type or HLB, oil nature (EACN), alcohol type and concentration, temperature, or any combination of these; it may be represented by a single generalized variable, i.e., the deviation from optimum formulation for three phase behavior. The locus of inversion is plotted on a formulation-WOR bidimensional diagram. Such a diagram shows that there exist two different inversion regimes. The first occurs for medium internal phase ratio systems, and is associated with optimum formulation. This kind of inversion is linked with a minimum in both emulsion stability and viscosity. The second kind occurs at high internal phase ratio and off-optimum formulation, and consists of two branches. In this second case of inversion, the stability exhibits a sudden change, while the viscosity passes through a maximum. The bidimensional formulation-WOR diagram is divided into six regions with different emulsion characteristics. Typical properties for each region and transition through boundaries are discussed.
KeywordsPhase Behavior Optimum Formulation Electrolytical Conductivity Emulsion Type Surfactant Flooding
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