Ultrasound pp 307-332 | Cite as

Ultrasound: Synergistic Effects and Application in Cancer Therapy by Hyperthermia

  • Padmakar P. Lele

Abstract

In a previous paper1, it was shown that heat generation is the principal mechanism for the occurrence of histologically detectable irreversible injury, as well as reversible functional alterations, in solid, mammalian tissues from insonation with 2 to 3 MHz ultrasound at intensities up to at least 1,000 W.cm-2 and probably up to 1,500 W.cm-2 A well defined time-dependent temperature -threshold, linked to the state of the tissue, governs the occurrence of tissue damage. Thus, any other modality or agent leading to heat generation and/or temperature elevation in the tissues will be additive to ultrasound and reduce the amount of ultrasonically generated heat needed to reach the threshold for tissue damage or for functional alteration. Water bath, environmental chambers, sauna, infra-red, CO2 laser, fever from systemic infection or induced artificially by injection of pyrogens (e.g. Cooley’s Toxin), local tissue inflammation from local infection, etc. may thus act additively with ultrasound. On the other hand, some agents may act directly or indirectly on the biological system and alter its functional, ultrastruetura1 and/or histological state in such a manner that its threshold for ultrasonic thermal damage is lowered or its ability to recover from sublethal damage by biological repair is compromised.

Keywords

Burning Toxicity Catheter Microwave Attenuation 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padmakar P. Lele
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard-M.I.T. Hyperthermia CenterMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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