Effects of Estrogens and Antiestrogens on Cell Proliferation
It has been recognized for many years that breast cancer in some women is regulated in part by the female sex steroid hormone estrogen. About one-third of human breast carcinomas are ‘hormone-dependent’ and respond to various endocrine manipulations, which are usually designed to block the stimulatory effects of estrogen on tumor growth. Although the mechanisms by which additive hormone therapies, such as pharmacologic estrogens or progestins, inhibit tumor growth have not been defined, treatment by oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, hypophysectomy, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) super agonists, and aromatase inhibitors such as amino-glutethimide presumably inhibit growth by reducing the concentration of estrogen available to the cancer cell. The nonsteroidal antiestrogens block the effects of endogenous estrogen at the cancer cell itself by competing with estrogen for its receptor.
KeywordsOsteoporosis Flare Doxorubicin Methotrexate Melphalan
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 6.Osborne CK, Lippman ME (1978): Human breast cancer in tissue culture: The effects of hormones. In McGuire WL (ed): Breast Cancer — Advances in Research and Treatment, Vol 2. New York, Plenum, pp 103–154.Google Scholar
- 11.Salomon DS, Zwiebel JA, Bano M, et al (1984): Presence of transforming growth factors in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 44:4067–4077.Google Scholar
- 22.Sutherland RL, Hall RE, Taylor IW (1983): Cell proliferation kinetics of MCF-7 human mammary carcinoma cells in culture and effects of tamoxifen on exponentially growing and plateau-phase cells. Cancer Res 43:3993–4006.Google Scholar
- 28.Osborne K, Coronado E, Robinson J, Coalson J (1986): Endocrine therapy inhibits proliferation but does not kill human breast cancer cells growing in the nude mouse. Proc AACR 27:219.Google Scholar
- 38.Bowman D (1983): A phase II evaluation of sequential tamoxifen, premarin, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil in refractory stage IV breast cancer. Proc ASCO 2:C-413.Google Scholar
- 40.Lippman M, Sorace R, Bagley C, et al (1985): Effective systemic management of locally advanced breast cancer. Proc ASCO4:C-249.Google Scholar
- 41.Conte PF, Pronzato P, Falcone A, et al (1987): Cytokinetic chemotherapy with estrogenic recruitment in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. In Iacobelli S (ed): First International Congress on Cancer and Hormones—Rome. Lancashire, England, Parthenon Publishing, in press.Google Scholar