Calcium Channel Blocking Drugs as Antihypertensive Agents

  • Austin E. Doyle
Part of the International Yearbooks of Nephrology book series (IYNE, volume 1)


Drugs which block the calcium channels are not a homogeneous group either chemically or in their physiological actions. These differences are reflected in their actions on the circulation, and lead to differences in their clinical actions as antihypertensive drugs.


Vascular Smooth Muscle Cardiac Index Essential Hypertension Calcium Antagonist Antihypertensive Drug 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Reuter, H. The dependence of the slow inward current in Purkinje fibres on the external calcium concentration. J. Physiol. 192:475–492, 1967.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fleckenstein, A., Trittart, H., Fleckenstein, B., Herbst, A., Grun, G. A new group of competitive Caantagonists (Iproveratril, D600 Prenylamine) with highly potent inhibitory effects on excitation-contraction coupling in mammalian myocardium. Pflügers Arch. Ges. Physiol. 307:R25, 1969.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kohlhardt, M., Fleckenstein, A. Inhibition of the slow inward current by nifedipine in mammalian ventricular myocardium. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 298:267–272, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ljung, B., Kjellstedt, A., Oreba̎ck, B. Vascular versus myocardial selectivity of calcium antagonists studied by concentration-time-effect relations. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 10 (Suppl.1):S34-S39, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rousseau, M.F., Etienne, J., Van Mechelen, H., Veriter, C., Pouleur, H. Hemodynamic effects of nicardipine in patients with coronary artery disease. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 6:833–839, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maxwell, G.M., Crompton, S., Rencis, V. Effect of nisoldipine upon the general and coronary hemodynamics of the anesthetized dog. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 4:393–397, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bostro̎m, S-L, Ljung, B., Ma̎rdh, S., Forsén, S., Thulin, E. Interaction of the antihypertensive drug Felodipine with calmodulin. Nature 292: 777–778, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hiraoki, T. Vogel, J. Structure and function of calcium-binding proteins. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 10 (Suppl. 1):S14-S31, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bass, O., Friedman, E. Ein beitrag zum anti-arrhythmishen wirkungs-mechanismus von Verapamil. Schweiz. Med. Wschr. 101: 792–798, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robinson, B.F., Collier, J.G., Dobbs, R.J. Comparative dilator effect of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside in forearm arterial bed and dorsal hand veins in man. Cardiovasc. Res. 13:16–26, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leon, M.B., Bonow, R.D., Rosung, D.R., Kent, K.M., Lipson, L.C., Bacharac, S.L., Green, M.V., Epstein, S.E. Effects of verapamil alone and combined with propranolol in left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 62 (Suppl.III):288–299, 1980.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hagino, D. Application of Improveratril in the pharmacotherapy of hypertension. Japan. J. Clin. Exp.Med. 45:208–14, 1968.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Livesley, B., Catley, P.F., Campbell, R.C., Oram, S. Double-blind evaluation of verapamil, propranolol and isorbide dinitrate against placebo in the treatment of angina pec toris. Br it. Med. J. i:375–378, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lewis, G.R.J., Morley, K.D., Lewis, B.M. The treatment of hypertension with verapamil. N.Z. Med. J. 87:351–354, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Midtbø, K., Hals, O. Verapamil in the treatment of hypertension. Curr. Ther. Res. 27: 830–838, 1980.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gould, B.A., Mann, S., Kiese, H., Subramanian, V.B., Raftery, E.B. The 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure profile with verapamil. Circulation 65:22–27, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zachariah, P.K., Sheps, S.G., Schirger, A., Spiekerman, R.E., O’Brien, P.C., Simpson, K.O. Verapamil and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in essential hypertension. Am. J. Cardiol. 57: 74D–79D, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leonetti, G., Pasotti, C., Ferrari, G.P., Zanchetti, A. Double-blind comparison of antihypertensive effects of verapamil and propranolol. In Calcium Antagonists in Cardiovascular Therapy. Eds. Zanchetti, A., Krikler, D.M. Excerpta Medica Amsterdam, p.260.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anavekar, S.N., Christophidis, N., Louis, W.J., Doyle, A.E. Verapamil in the treatment of hypertension. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 3, 287–292, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Doyle, A.E. Comparison of Beta-adrenoceptor blockers and calcium antagonists in hypertension. Hypertension 5 (Suppl.II):II103–II108, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hornung, R.S., Jones, R.I., Gould, B.A., Sonedra, R., Raftery, E.B. Twice daily verapamil for hypertension: a comparison with propranolol. Am. J.Cardiol. 57 Supp 1: 93D–98D, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lewis, G.R.J. Long term results with Verapamil in essential hypertension and its influence on serum lipids. Am. J. Cardiol. 57 Supp 1: 35D–38D, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Midtbø, K., Hals, O., Van der Meer, J., Storstein, L., Lauve, O. Instant and sustained release verapamil in essential hypertension. Am. J. Cardiol. 57 Suppl:59D–63D, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bűhler, F.R., Hulthén, L., Kiowski, W., Műller, F.B., Bolli, P.J. The place of the calcium antagonist verapamil in antihypertensive therapy. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 4:S350–S357, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Műller, F.B., Bolli, P., Erne, P., Kiowski, W., Bűhler, F.R. Calcium antagonism — a new concept for treating hypertension. Am. J. Cardiol. 57 (Suppl.) 50D–53D,1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Waeber, B., Nussberger, J., Brunner, H.R. Does renin determine the blood pressure response to calcium entry blockers? Hypertension 7:223–27,1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Doyle, A.E., Smirk, F.H. The neurogenic component in hypertension. Circulation 12:543–558, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maunelli, M., DeFeo, M.L., Maggi, M., Gepetti, P., Baldi, E., Pupilli, C., Seno, M. Effect of Verapamil on catecholamine secretion by human pheochromocytoma. Hypertension 8:813–814, 1986.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Benaim, M.E. Asystole after verapamil. Brit. Med. J. 2:169–170, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wayne, V.S., Harper, R.W., Laufer, E., Federman, J., Anderson, S.T., Pitt, A. Adverse reaction between Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs and verapamil. Report of three cases. Aust. N.Z.J. Med. 12:285–289, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hare, D.L., Horowitz, J.D. Verapamil hepatotoxicity: a hypersensitivity reaction. Am.Heart J. III:610–611, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ronnov-Jensen, V., Tjernlund, A. Hepatotoxicity due to treatment with papaverine. Report of four cases. N.Eng.J. Med. 281: 1333–1335, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klein, H.O., Lang, W.R., Weiss, E., Segui, E.D., Libhaber, C., Guerrero, J., Kaplinsky, E. The influence of verapamil on serum digoxin concentrations. Circulation 65: 998–1003, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pedersen, K.E., Dorph-Pedersen, A., Hvidt, S., Klitgaard, N.A., Nielsen-Kudsk, F. Digoxin-verapamil interaction. C lin. Pharmacol. Ther. 30: 311–316, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yamakado, T., Oonishi, N., Kondo, S., Nozin, A., Nakano, T., Takezawa, H. Effects of diltiazem on cardiovascular responses during exercise in systemic hypertension and comparison with propranolol. Am. J. Cardiol. 52: 1023–1027, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Frishman, W.H., Charlap, S., Goldberger, J., Kimmel, B., Stroh, J., Corsa, F., Allen, L., Strom, J. Comparison of diltiazem and nifedipine for both angina pectoris and systemic hypertension. Am. J. Cardiol. 56: 41H–46H, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hoffmeister, F., Kazda, S., Kauze, H.P. Influence of nimodipine (Baye 9736) on the post-ischemic changes of brain function. Acta Neurol. Scand. 60(Suppl. 72):358–9, 1979.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lydtin, H., Lohmol1er, G., Lohmol1er, R., Schmitz, H., Walter, I. Hemodynamic studies on adalat in healthy volunteers and in patients. Proc. 2nd. Int. Adalat Symposium. Eds. W. Lochner, W. Braasch, G. Kronenberg. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, p.112. 1975.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lund-Johansen, P., Omvik, P. Central hemodynamic changes of calcium antagonists at rest and during exercise in essential hypertension. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 10 (Suppl.) S139–S148, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nordlander, M. Hemodynamic effects of short and long term administration of felodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Drugs 29(Suppl.2):90–101, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hallback-Nordlander, M., Thalen, P. Differentiated resetting of vagal and sympathetic component of baroreflex control in SHR — Effects of antihypertensive therapy with felodipine. J. Hypertension 1(Suppl.2): 217–219, 1983.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Guazzi, M., Olivari, M.T., Polese, A., Fiorentini, C., Magrini, F., Maruzzi, P. Nifedipine, a new antihypertensive with rapid action. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 22: 528–531, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guazzi, M., Fiorentini, C., Bartorelli, A., Necchi, G., Polese, A. Short and long term efficacy of a calcium antagonistic agent (nifedipine) combined with methyl dopa in the treatment of severe hypertension. Circulation 61 913–916, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Guazzi, M. Use of calcium channel blocking agents in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension. In Calcium Channel Blocking Agents in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. Eds. P.H. Stone and E.M. Antman. Futura Publishing Co. N.Y. P.387,1983.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Timmis, A.D., Jewitt, D.E. Studies with felodipine in congestive heart failure. Drugs 29(Suppl. 2): 66–75, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Olivari, M.T., Levine, T.B., Cohn, J.N. Acute hemodynamic effects of nitrendipine in chronic congestive heart failure. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 6 (Suppl.7): S1002–S1005, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tumas, J., Deth, R., Kloner, R.A. Effects of nisoldipine, a new calcium antagonist on myocardial infarct size and cardiac dynamics following acute myocardial infarction. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 7: 361–367, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Murakami, M., Murakami, E., Takekoshi, N., Tsochiya, M., Kin, T., Onoe, T., Takeuchi, N., Funatsu, T., Hara, S., Isise, S., Mifune, J., Maeda, M. Antihypertensive effect of 4–2 nitrophenyl-2, 6 di-methyl-1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5 dicarbonic acid dimethyl ester (Nifedipine, Bay a 1040) a new coronary vasodilator. Japan Heart J. 13; 128–136, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aoki, K., Kondo, S., Mochijuchi, A., Yoshida, T., Kato, S., Kato, K., Takikawa, K. Antihypertensive effect of cardiovascular Ca2 + antagonism in hypertensive patients in the absence and presence of Beta adrenergic blockade. Am.Heart J. 96: 218–222, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lederballe-Pedersen, O., Mikklesen, E. Acute and chronic effects of nifedipine in arterial hyper tens ion. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 14:375–, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Olivari, M.T., Bartorelli, C., Polese, A., Fiorentini, C., Moruzzi, O., Guazzi, M.D. Treatment of hypertension with nifedipine, a calcium antagonistic agent. Circulation 59: 1056–1059, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bayley, S., Dobbs, R.J., Robinson, B.F. Nifedipine in hypertension: report of a double blind controlled trial. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 14: 529–532, 1982.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Erne, P., Bolli, P., Bertel, O., Hulthén, L., Kiowski, W. Műller, F.B., Bűhler, F. Factors influencing the hypotensive effects of calcium antagonists. Hypertension 5 (Suppl.II): II97–II102, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gould, B.A., Hornung, R.S., Mann, S., Subramanian, V.B., Raftery, E.B. Nifedipine or verapamil as sole treatment of hypertension. An intraarterial study. Hypertension 5 (Suppl. II): II91–II96, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Elmfeldt, D., Hedner, T., Westerling, S. Felodipine in hypertension — a review. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 10(Suppl. l):S154–S160, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Westermann, B., Houtzagers, J.J.R., Meulesteen, P. Felodipine in comparison with prazosin in hypertensive patients inadequately controlled on blockade. Drugs 29 (Suppl. 2):159–160, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jackson, B., Morgan, T.O., Gibson, J., Anderson, A. Felodipine versus prazosin as an addition to a ß-blocker in the treatment of essential hypertension. Drugs 34 (Suppl.3):109–119, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    The Cooperative Study Group. Felodipine versus hydrallazine: a controlled trial as third line therapy in hypertension. Brit. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 21:571–575, 1986.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A̎berg, H., Lindsjo̎, M., Mo̎rlin, B. Comparative trial of felodipine and nifedipine in refractory hypertension. Drugs 29 (Suppl. 2): 117–123, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Borgma̎sters, H., Forsén, B., Tuomilehto, J., Hellebø, R., Walle, P.O., Nielsen, H.M., Nielsen, E., Winkel, O., Steiners, E., Ibsen, H. Felodipine versus hydrochlorothiazide as an addition to a β-blocker in the treatment of hypertension. Drugs 34 (Suppl.3):136–138, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Muir, A.L., Wathen, C.G. The use of felodipine in the treatment of severe hypertension. Drugs 34 (Suppl. 3):120–124, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Műller, F.B., Bolli, P., Erne, P., Block, L.H., Kiowski, W., Bűhler, F.R. Therapy with long acting calcium antagonist nitrendipine.J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (Suppl.): S1073–S1076, 1984.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Smith, S.A., Maco, P.J.E., Littler, W.A. Felodipine, blood pressure and certain cardiovascular reflexes in man. Hypertension 8:1172–1178, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yagil, Y., Kobrin, I., Stessman, J., Ghanem, J.N., Leibel, B., Ben-Ishay, D. Effectiveness of combined nifedipine and propranolol treatment in hypertension. Hypertension 5(Suppl.II):II113–II117, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Murphy, M.B., Scriven, A.J.J., Dollery, C.T. Efficacy of nifedipine as a step 3 antihypertensive. Hypertension 5 (Suppl.II): II18–II23, 1983.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Carruthers, S.G., Bailey, D.G. Tolerance and cardiovascular effects of single dose Felodipine/β blocker combinations in healthy subjects. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 10(Suppl. 1): S169–S176, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hedner, T., Sjo̎gren, E., Elmfeldt, D. Antihypertensive effects and pharmacokinetics of Felodipine combined with a ß-blocker and a diuretic. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 10 (Supp1.1): S177–S184, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gustaffson, D. Microvascular mechanisms involved in calcium antagonist edema formation. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 10 (Suppl.1): S121–S131, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ramon, Y., Behar, S., Kishon, Y., Engleberg, I.S. Gingival hyperplasia caused by nifedipine — a preliminary report. Int. J. Cardiol. 5:195–204, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Leonetti, G., Sala, C., Bianchini, C., Tergoli, L., Zanchetti, A. Antihypertensive and renal effects of orally administered verapamil. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 18: 375–382, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McLaughlin, M., de Mello Aires, M., Malnic, G. Verapamil effect on renal function of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Renal Physiol. 8:112–119, 1985.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Austin, M.B., Robson, R.A., Bailey, R.R. Effect of nifedipine on renal function of normal subjects and hypertensive patients with renal function impairment. N. Z. Med. J. 96:824–31, 1983.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bell, A.J., Lindner, A. Effects of verapamil and nifedipine on renal function and hemodynamics in the dog. Renal Physiol. 7:329–43, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Leonetti, G., Cuspidi, C., Sampieri, L., Terzoli, L., Zanchetti, A. Comparison of cardiovascular, renal and humoral effects of two calcium channel blockers in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. J. Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 4 (Suppl. 3): S319–24, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Brown, B., Churchill, P. Renal effects of methoxyverapamil in anesthetized rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 225: 372–77, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Johns, E.J. The influence of diltiazem and nifedipine on renal function in the rat. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 84:703–13, 1983.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ene, M.D., Williamson, P.J., Roberts, C.J., Weddell, G. Natriuretic effects of nifedipine and nitrendipine. Brit. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 19:423–427, 1985.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Garthoff, B., Knorr, A., Thomas, G., Kazda, S. Nitrendipine increases sodium excretion in acutely saline loaded rats. Biochem. Pharmacol. 31:3015–6, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Leonetti, G., Fuscio, M., Terzoli, L., Rupoli, L., Graduik, R., Sampieri, L., Cuspidi, C., Boselli, L., Bolla, G., Zanchetti, A. Antihypertensive and water and sodium balance effects of felodipine, a new vasodilating calcium antagonist in hypertensive patients. Drugs 29(Suppl 2):185–191, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Abe, Y., Kamori, T., Miura, K., Takada, T., Imauishi, M., Okahara, Y., Yamamoto, K. Effect of the calcium antagonist nicardipine on renal function and and renin release in dogs. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 5: 254–259, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Herlitz, H., Aurell, M., Bjo̎rk, S., Granerus, G. Renal effects of felodipine in hypertensive patients with reduced renal function. Drugs 29(Suppl.2): 192–197. 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Di Bona, G.F., Sawin, L.L. Renal tubular site of action in felodipine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 228: 420–424, 1984.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ha̎berle, D.A., Kawata, T., Davis, J.M. The site of action of nitrendipine in rat kidney. J.Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 9(Suppl.i) S17–S23, 1987.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Giebisch, G., Guckian, V.A., Klein-Robbenhar, G., Klein-Robbenhar, M.T. Renal clearance and micropuncture studies of nisoldipine effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 9 (Suppl.1):S24–S31, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rose, H., Philipson, J., Puschett, J.B. Effect of nitrendipine in a rat model of ischemic acute renal failure. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 9 (Suppl. i) S57–S59, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lee, S.M., Pattison, M.E., Michael, U.F. Nitrendipine protects against aminoglycoside toxicity in the rat. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 9(Suppl.i):S65–S69, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sterzel, R.B., McKenzie, D.E. Effects of nitrendipine on the course of experimental immunologic glomerulonephritis. J. Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 9 (Suppl.i):S60–S64, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Folklow, B. Physiological aspects of primary hypertension. Physiol.Rev. 62:347–5-4, 1982.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Doyle, A.E., Fraser, J.R.E., Marshall, R.J. Reactivity of forearm vessels to vasoconstrictor substances in hypertensive and normotensive persons. Clin.Sci. 18:431–454.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Austin E. Doyle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations