Transmembrane transport of fatty acids in the heart
Although fatty acid uptake by the myocardium is rapid and efficient, the mechanism of their transmembrane transport has been unclear. Fatty acids are presented to the plasma membrane of cardiomyocytes as albumin complexes within the plasma. Since albumin is not taken up by the cells, it was postulated that specific high affinity binding sites at the sarcolemma may mediate the dissociation of fatty acids from the albumin molecules, before they are transported into the cells. In studies with a representative long-chain fatty acid, oleate, it was in fact shown that fatty acids bind with high affinity to isolated plasma membranes of rat heart myocytes revealing a KD of 42 nM. Moreover, a specific membrane fatty acid-binding protein (MFABP) was isolated from these membranes. It had a molecular weight of 40kD, an isoelectric point of 9.0, and lacked carbohydrate or lipid components. Binding to a specific membrane protein might represent the first step of a carrier mediated uptake process. Therefore, the uptake kinetics of oleate by isolated rat heart myocytes was determined under conditions where only cellular influx and not metabolism occurred. Uptake revealed saturation kinetics and was temperature dependent which were considered as specific criteria for a facilitated transport mechanism. For evaluation whether uptake is mediated by MFABP, the effect of a monospecific antibody to this protein on cellular influx of oleate was examined. Inhibition of uptake of fatty acids but not of glucose by the antibody to MFABP indicated the physiologic significance of this protein as transmembrane carrier in the cellular uptake process of fatty acids. Such a transporter might represent an important site for the metabolic regulation of fatty acid influx into the myocardium.
Key wordsfatty acid metabolism cardiomyocytes carrier mediated uptake
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