Oncogenes pp 177-195 | Cite as

Transforming growth factors-α and -β and their potential roles in neoplastic transformation

  • Rik Derynck
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 47)


Two types of growth factors have been termed transforming growth factors (TGFs) because they were discovered for their ability to elicit cellular transformation when added to an immortalized nonneoplastic cell line. One of these, TGF-α, is structurally related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and competes for binding to the same receptor, while the other one, TGF-β, is a structurally unrelated protein with distinct receptors.


Transform Growth Factor Soft Agar Epidermal Growth Factor Binding Transform Growth Factor Type Normal Inhibitory Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Todaro GJ, De Larco JE, Cohen S: Transformation by murine and feline sarcoma viruses specifically blocks binding of epidermal growth factor to cells. Nature 264:26–31, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    De Larco JE, Todaro GJ: Growth factors from murine sarcoma virus transformed cells. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 75:4001–4005, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Todaro GJ, Fryling C, De Larco JE: Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5258–5262, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roberts AB, Lamb LC, Newton DL, Sporn MB, De Larco JE, Todaro GJ: Transforming growth factors: isolation of polypeptides from virally and chemically transformed cells by acid/ethanol extraction. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 77:3494–3498, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ozanne B, Fulton RJ, Kaplan PL: Kirsten murine sarcoma virus transformed cell and a spontaneously transformed rat cell line produce transforming factors. J Cell Physiol 105: 163–180, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roberts AB, Frolik CA, Anzano MA, Sporn MB: Transforming growth factors from neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues. Fed Proc 42:2621–2625, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anzano MA, Roberts AB, Meyers CA, Komoriya A, Lamb LC, Smith JM Sporn MB: Synergistic interaction of two classes of transforming growth factors from murine sarcoma cells. Cancer Res 42:4776–4778, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anzano, MA, Roberts AB, Smith JM, Sporn MB, De Larco JE: Sarcoma growth factor from conditioned medium of virally transformed cells is composed of both type a and β transforming growth factors. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 80:6264–6268, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Roberts AB, Anzano MA, Wakefield LM, Roche NS, Stern DF, Sporn MB: Type β transforming growth factor: a bifunctional regulation of cellular growth. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 82:119–123, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tucker RF, Volkenant ME, Branum EL, Moses HL: Comparison of intra- and extracel-lular transforming growth factors from nontransformed and chemically transformed mouse embryo cells. Cancer Res 43:1581–1586, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marquardt H, Hunkapiller MW, Hood LE, Twardzik DR, De Larco JE, Stephenson JR, Todaro GJ: Transforming growth factors produced by retrovirus-transformed rodent cells and human melanoma cells: amino acid sequence homology with epidermal growth factor. Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4684–4688, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sherwin SA, Twardzik DR, Bohn WH, Cockley KD, Todaro GJ: High molecular weight transforming growth factor activity in the urine of patients with disseminated cancer. Cancer Res 43:403–407, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marquardt H, Todaro GJ: Human transforming growth factor. Production by a melanoma cell line, purification and initial characterization. J Biol Chem 257:5220–5225, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Massagué, J: Epidermal growth factor-like transforming growth factor. I. Isolation, chemical characterization and potentiation by other transforming growth factors from feline sarcoma virus-transformed rat cells. J Biol chem 258:13606–13613, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marquardt H, Hunkapiller MW, Hood LE, Todaro GJ: Rat transforming growth factor type 1: structure and relation to epidermal growth factor. Science 223:1079–1082, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Derynck R, Roberts AB, Winkler ME, Chen EY, Goeddel DV: Human transforming growth factor-α: precursor structure and expression in E. coli. Cell 38:287–297, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee DC, Rose TM, Webb NR, Todaro GJ: Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA for rat transforming growth factor-α. Nature 313:489–491, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Derynck R: Human transforming growth factor-α; precursor sequence, gene structure and heterologous expression. Cancer Cells 3:79–86, 1985.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bringman TS, Lindquist PB, Derynck R: Different transforming growth factor-α species are derived from a glycosylated and palmitoylated transmembrane precursor. Cell 48: 429–440, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Naughton MA, Sanger F: Purification and specificity of pancreatic elastase. Biochem J 78:156–163, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Noda M, Furatani Y, Takahashi H, Toyosato M, Hirose T, Imayama S, Nakanishi S, Numa S: Cloning and sequence analysis of bovine adrenal preproenkephalin. Nature 295:202–206, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gübler U, Seeburg P, Hoffman BJ, Gage LP, Udenfriend S: Molecular cloning establishes pro-enkephalin as a precursor of enkephalin-containing peptides. Nature 295:206–208, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Amara SG, Jonas V, Rosenfeld MG, Ong ES, Evans RM: Alternative RNA processing in calcitonin gene expression generates mRNAs encoding different polypeptide products. Nature 298:240–244, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nakanishi S, Inoue E, Nakamura M, Change ACY, Cohen SN, Numa S: Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for bovine corticotropin-β-lipotropin precursor. Nature 278:423–427, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Massagué J: Epidermal growth factor like transforming growth factor. II. Interaction with epidermal growth factor receptors in human placenta membranes and A431 cells. J Biol Chem: 13614–13620, 1983.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gentry LE, Twardzik DR, Lim GJ, Ranchalis JE, Lee DC: Expression and characterization of transforming growth factor-α precursor protein in transfected mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol 7:1585–1591, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Teixido J, Gilmore R, Lee DC, Massagué J: Integral membrane glycoprotein properties of the prohormone pro-transforming growth factor-α. Nature 326:883–885, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Todaro GJ, Lee DC, Webb NR, Rose TM, Brown JP: Rat type α transforming growth factor: structure and possible function as a membrane receptor. Cancer Cells 3:51–58, 1985.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kaplan PL, Topp WC, Ozanne B: Simian virus 40 induces the production of a polypeptide transforming growth factor(s). Virology 108:484–490, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaplan PL, Ozanne B: Polyoma virus-transformed cells produce transforming growth factor(s) and grow in serum-free medium. Virology 123:372–380, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Derynck R, Goeddel DV, Ullrich A, Gutterman JU, Williams R, Bringman TS, Berger WH: Synthesis of mRNAs for transforming growth factors- α and -β and the epidermal growth factor receptor by human tumors. Cancer Res 47:707–712, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Twardzik DR, Limball ES, Sherwin SA, Ranchalis JE, Todaro GJ: Comparison of growth factors functionally related to epidermal growth factor in the urine of normal and human tumor bearing athymic mice. Cancer Res 45:1934–1939, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wilcox JN, Derynck R: Developmental expression of transforming growth factor- α and -β in mouse fetus. Mol Cell Biol 8:3415–3422, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nexo E, Hollenberg MD, Figueroa A, Pratt RM: Detection of epidermal growth factor-urogastrone and its receptor during fetal mouse development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:2782–2785, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pratt RM: Role of epidermal growth factor in embryonic development. In: Sawyer R (ed): The Molecular and Developmental Biology of Keratins. Current Topics in Developmental Biology, volume 22. 1987, pp 175–192.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wilcox JN, Derynck R: Localization of cells synthesizing transforming growth factor-α in the mouse brain. J Neurosc. 8:1901–1904, 1988.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nistér M, Libermann TA, Betsholz C, Petterson M, Claesson-Welsh L, Heldin CH, Schlessinger J, Westermark B: Expression of messenger RNAs for platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-α in human malignant glioma cell lines. Cancer Res 48:3910–3918, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Morrison RS, Kornblum HI, Leslie FM, Bradshaw RA: Trophic stimulation of cultured neurons from neonatal rat brain by epidermal growth factor. Science 238:72–75, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Coffey RJ, Derynck R, Wilcox JN, Bringman TS, Goustin TS, Moses HL, Pittelkow MR: Production and auto-induction of transforming growth factor-α in human keratinocytes. Nature 328:817–820 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Paulsson Y, Hammacher A, Heldin C-H, Westermark B: Possible positive autocrine feedback in the prereplicative phase of human fibroblasts. Nature 328:714–717, 1987.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Warner SJC, Auger KR, Libby P: Human interleukin 1 induces interleukin 1 gene ex-pression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. J Exp Med 165:1316–1331, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Van Obberghen-Shilling E, Roche NS, Flanders KC, Sporn MB, Roberts AB: Trans-forming growth factor-β 1 positively regulates its own expression in normal and transformed cells. J Biol Chem 263:7741–7746, 1988.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Weinstein GD, McCullough JL, Ross PA: Cell kinetic basis for pathophysiology of psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 85:597–583, 1985.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barrandon Y, Green H: Cell migration is essential for sustained growth of keratinocyte colonies: the roles of transforming growth factor-α and epidermal growth factor. Cell 50:1131–1137, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Elder JT, Fisher GJ, Lindquist PB, Bennett GL: Pittelkow M, Coffey RJ, Ellingsworth J, Derynck R, Voorhees JJ: Overexpression of TGF-α in psoriatic skin. Science, 243:811–814, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Argyris TS: The regulation of epidermal hyperplastic growth. CRC Critical Rev Toxicol 9:152–200, 1981.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nishizuke Y: The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour production. Nature 308:693–698, 1984.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nishizuka Y: Studies and perspective of protein kinase C. Science 233:305–312, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pittelkow MR, Lindquist PB, Derynck R, Abraham R, Graves-Deal R, Coffey RJ: Induction of transforming growth factor-α expression in human keratinocytes by phorbol esters. J Biol Chem 264:5164–5171, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oka, Orth: Human plasma epidermal growth factor/β-urogastrone is associated with blood platelets. J Clin Invest 72:249–259, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Salomon DS, Perroteau I, Kidwell WR, Tarn J, Derynck R: Loss of growth responsiveness to epidermal growth factor and enhanced production of alpha-transforming growth factor in ras-transformed mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol 130:297–409, 1987.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sporn MBN, Todaro GJ: Autocrine secretion and malignant transformation of cells. N Engl J Med 303:878–880, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stern DF, Hare DA, Cecchini MA, Weinberg RA: Construction of a novel oncogene based on synthetic sequences encoding epidermal growth factor. Science 235:321–324, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rosenthal A, Lindquist PB, Bringman TS, Goeddel DV, Derynck R: Expression in rat fibroblasts of a transforming growth factor-α cDNA results in transformation. Cell 46:301–309, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Watanabe S, Lazar E, Sporn MB: Transfection of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells by an infectious retrovirus carrying a synthetic rat type a transforming growth factor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:1258–1262, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Finzi E, Fleming T, Segatto O, Pennington C, Bringman TS, Derynck R, Aaronson SA: The human TGF-α coding sequence is not a direct acting oncogene when overexpressed in NIH/3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:3733–3737, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Land H, Chen AC, Morgenstern JP, Parada LF, Weinberg RA: Behavior of myc and ras oncogenes in transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol 6:1917–1925, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Finzi E, Kilkenny A, Strickland JE, Balashak M, Bringman TS, Derynck R, Aaronson SA, Yuspa SH: TGF-α stimulates growth of skin papillomas by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms but does not cause neoplastic progression. Mol Carcinogenesis 1:7–12, 1988.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dickson RB, Kasid A, Huff KK, Bates SE, Knabbe C, Bronzertt D, Gellman EP, Lippman ME: Activation of growth factor secretion in tumorigenic states of breast cancer induced by 17 β-estradiol or c-Ha-ras oncogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:837–841, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    DiFiore PP, Pierce JH, Fleming TA, Hazan R, Ullrich A, King CR, Schlessinger J, Aaronson SA: Overexpression of the human EGF receptor confers an EGF-dependent trans-formed phenotype to NIH3T3 cells. Cell 51:1063–1070, 1987.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Riedel H, Massoglia S, Schlessinger J, Ullrich A: Ligand activation of overexpressed epidermal growth factor receptors transforms NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:1477–1481, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sporn MB, Roberts AB, Wakefield LM, Assoian RK: Transforming growth factor-β: biological function and chemical structure. Science 233:532–534, 1987.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sporn MB, Roberts AB, Wakefield LM, de Crombrugghe B: Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of transforming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 105:1039–1045,1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Childs CB, Proper JA, Tucker RF, Moses HL: Serum contains a platelet-derived trans-forming growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:5312–5316, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Assoian RK, Komoriya A, Meyers CA, Miller DM, Sporn MB: Transforming growth factor-β in human platelets. Identification of a major storage site, purification, and charac-terization. J Biol Chem 258:7155–7160, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Seyedin SM, Thomas TC, Thompson AY, Rosen DM, Piez KA: Purification and characterization of two cartilage-inducing factors from bovine demineralized bone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:2267–2271, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Seyedin SM, Thompson AY, Bentz H, Rosen DM, McPherson M, Conti A, Siegel NR, Galluppi GR, Piez KA: Cartilage-inducing factor-A: apparent identity to transforming growth factor-beta. J Biol Chem 261:5693–5695, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Derynck R, Jarrett JA, Chen EY, Eaton DH, Bell JR, Assoian RK, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Goeddel DV: Human transforming growth factor-beta complimentary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells. Nature 316:701–705, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Derynck R, Jarrett JA, Chen EY, Goeddel DV: The murine transforming growth factor-beta precursor. J Biol Chem 261:4377–4379, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lawrence DA, Pircher R, Kryceve-Martinerie C, Jullien P: Normal embryo fibroblasts release transforming growth factors in a latent form. J Cell Physiol 121:184–188, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pircher DA, Lawrence DA and Jullien P: Latent beta-transforming growth factor in non-transformed and Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed normal rat kidney cells, clone 49F. Cancer Res 44:5538–5543, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miyazono K, Hellman U, Wernstedt C, Heldin C-H: Latent high molecular weight complex of transforming growth factor-β. Purification from human platelets and structural characterization. J Biol Chem 263:6407–6415, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wakefield LM, Smith DM, Flanders KC, Sporn MB: Latent transforming growth factor-β. A high molecular weight complex containing precursor sequences. J Biol Chem 263:7646–7654, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lyons RM, Keski-Oja J, Moses HL: Proteolytic activation of latent transforming growth factor-β from fibroblast-conditioned medium. J Cell Biol 106:1659–1665, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cheifetz S, Weatherbee JA, Tsang ML, Anderson JK, Mole JE, Lucas R, Massagué J: The transforming growth factor-β system, a complex pattern of cross-reactive ligands and receptors. Cell 48:409–415, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Seyedin SM, Segarini PR, Rosen DM, Thompson AY, Bentz H, Graycar J: Cartilage-inducing factor-B is a unique protein structurally and functionally related to transforming growth factor β. J Biol Chem 262:1946–1949, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    de Martin R, Haendler B, Hofer-Warbinek R, Gaugitsch H, Wrann M, Schlüsener H, Seifert JM, Bodmer S, Fontana A, Hofer E: Complimentary DNA for human glioblastoma-derived T cell expressor factor, a novel member of the transforming growth factor β family. EMBO J 6:3673–3677, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hanks SK, Armour R, Baldwin JH, Maldonado F, Spiess J, Holley RW: Amino acid sequence of the BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor (polyergin) deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:79–82, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Madisen L, Webb NR, Rose TM, Marquardt H, Ikeda T, Twardzik D, Seyedin SM, Purchio AF: Transforming growth factor-β2: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis. DNA 7:1–8, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Derynck R, Lindquist PB, Lee A, Wen D, Tamm J Graycar JL, Rhee L, Mason AJ, Miller DA, Coffey RJ, Moses HL, Chen EY: A new type of transforming growth factor-β, TGF-β3. EMBO J 7:3737–3743, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    ten Dijke P, Hansen P, Iwata KK, Pieler C, Foulkes JG: Identification of another member of the transforming growth factor type β gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:4715–4719, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Purchio AF, Cooper JA, Brunner AM, Liwbin MN, Gentry LE, Koracina KS, Roth RA, Marquardt M: Identification of mannose-6-phosphate in two asparagine-linked sugar chains of recombinant transforming growth factor-β1 precursor. J Biol Chem 263:14211–14215, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ruoslahti E, Pierschbacher MD: New perspectives in cell adhesion: RGD and integrins. Science 238:491–497, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Massagué J, Like B: Cellular receptors for type beta transforming growth factor. Ligand binding and affinity labeling in human and rodent cell lines. J Biol Chem 260:2636–2645, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wakefield LM, Smith DM, Masui T Harris CC, Sporn MB: Distribution and modulation of the cellular receptor for transforming growth factor-β. J Cell Biol 105:965–975, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cheifetz S, Like B, Massagué J: Cellular distribution of type I and type II receptors for transforming growth factor-beta. J Biol Chem 261:9972–9978, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Shipley GD, Tucker RF, Moses HL: Type β transforming growth factor/growth inhibitor stimulates entry of monolayer cultures of AKR-2B cells into S phase after a prolonged prereplicative interval. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:4147–4151, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Leof EB, Proper JA, Goustin AS, Shipley GD, DiCorleto PE, Moses HL: Induction of c-sis mRNA and activity similar to platelet-derived growth factor by transforming growth factor-beta: a proposed model for indirect mitogenesis involving autocrine activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:2453–2457, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tucker RF, Shipley, GD, Moses HL, Holley RW: Growth inhibitor from BSC-1 cells closely related to platelet type beta transforming growth factor. Science 226:705–707, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shipley GD, Pittelkow MR, Wille JJ, Jr Scott RE, Moses HL: Reversible inhibition of human prokeratinocyte proliferation by type beta transforming growth factor—growth inhibitor in serum-free medium. Cancer Res 46:2068–2971, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Takehara K, LeRoy EC, Grotendorst GR: TGF-β inhibition of endothelial cell proliferaton: alteration of EGF binding and EGF-induced growth regulatory (competence) gene expression. Cell 149:415–422, 1987.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Carr BJ, Hayashi I, Branum EL, Moses HL: Inhibition of DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes by platelet-derived type beta transforming growth factor. Cancer Res. 46:2330–2334, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kehrl JH, Wakefield LM, Roberts AB, Jakowlew S, Alvarez-Mon M, Derynck R, Sporn MB, Fauci AS: Production of transforming growth factor-beta by human T lymphocytes and its potential role in the regulation of T cell growth. J Exp Med 163:1037–1050, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wahl SM, Hunt DA, Wakefield LM, McCartney-Francis, N, Wahl LM, Roberts AB, Sporn MB: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) induces monocyte Chemotaxis and growth factor production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:5788–5792, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Postlethwaite AE, Keski-Oja J, Moses HL, Kang AH: Stimulation of the chemotactic migration of human fibroblasts by transforming growth factor-β. J Exp Med 165:251–256, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ignotz RA, Massagué J: Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates the expression of fibronectin and collagen and their incorporation into the extracellular matrix. J Biol Chem 261:4337–4345, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Roberts AB, Sporn, MB, Assoian RK, Smith JM, Roche NS, Wakefield LM, Heine UI, Liotta LA, Falanga V, Kehrl JH, Fauci AS: Transforming growth factor type-beta: rapid induction of fibrosis and angiogenesis in vivo and stimulation of collagen formation in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4167–4171, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ignotz RA, Endo T, Massagué J, Regulation of fibronectin and type I collagen mRNA levels by transforming growth factor-β. J Biol Chem 262:6443–6447, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ignotz RA, Massagué J: Cell adhesion protein receptors as targets for transforming growth factor-β action. Cell 51:189–197, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bassols A, Massagué J: Transforming growth factor-β regulates the expression and structure of extracellular matrix chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. J Biol Chem 263:3039–3045, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Laiho M, Saksela O, Andreasen PA, Keski-Oja J: Enhanced production and extracellular deposition of the endothelial type plasminogen activator inhibitor in cultured human lung fibroblasts by transforming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 103:2403–2410, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Edwards DR, Murphy G, Reynolds JJ, Whitham SE, Docherty AJP, Angel P, Health JK: Transforming growth factor beta modulates the expression of collagenase and metalloproteinase inhibitors. EMBO J 6:1899–1904, 19817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mustoe TA, Pierce GF, Thomason A, Gramates P, Sporn MB, Deuel TF: Accelerated healing of incisional wounds in rats induced by transforming growth factor-β. Science 237:1333–1335, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ohta M, Greenberger JS, Anklesaria P, Bassols A, Massagué J: Two forms of transforming growth factor-β distinguished by multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cells. Nature 329:539–541, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rosa F, Roberts AB, Danielpour D, Dart LL, Sporn MB, Dawid I: Mesoderm induction in amphibians: the role of TGF-β2-like factors. Science 239:783–785, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Anzano MA, Roberts AB, deLarco JE, Wakefield LM, Assocan RK, Roche NS, Smith JM, Lazarus JE, Sporn MB: Increased secretion of type β transforming growth factor accompanies viral transformation of cells. Mol Cell Biol 5:242–247, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Moses HL, Childs CB, Halper J, Shipley GD, Tucker RF: Role of transforming growth factors in neoplastic transformation. In: Veneziale CM (ed): Control of Cell Growth and Proliferation. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1984, pp 147–167.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Leof EB, Proper JA, Moses HL: Modulation of transforming growth factor beta action by activated ras and c-myc. Mol Cell Biol 7:2649–2652, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Moses HL, Coffey RJ, Leof EB, Lyons RM, Keski-Oja J: Transforming growth factor-β regulation of cell proliferation. J Cell Physiol 5 (Suppl).1–7, 1987.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Moses HL, Tucker RF, Leof EB, Coffey RJ, Halper J, Shipley GD: Type beta transforming growth factor is a growth stimulator and a growth inhibitor. Cancer Cells 3:65–71, 1985.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kehrl JH, Roberts AB, Wakefield LM, Jakowlew S, Sporn MB, Fauci AS: Transforming growth factor-β is an important immunomodulatory protein for human B lymphocytes. J Immunol 137:3855–3860, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rook AH, Kehrl JH, Wakefield LM, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Burlington, DB, Lane HC, Fauci AS: Effects of transforming growth factor-β on the functions of natural killer cells: depressed cytolytic activity and blunting of interferon-responsiveness. J Immunol 136:3916–3920, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rik Derynck

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations