Leishmaniasis pp 667-676 | Cite as

Leishmania Amastigotes: Adaptations for Growth in an Acidic in vivo Environment

  • Antony J. Mukkada
  • Theresa A. Glaser
  • Steven A. Anderson
  • Steven K. Wells
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 171)

Abstract

The amastigote stage of Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite proliferating within the phagolysosomes of macrophages in vertebrate hosts (1,12). The macrophage represents a hostile environment for most microbes since it is endowed with mechanisms designed to destroy conventional organisms after phagocytosis. A limited number of parasites such as the agents of trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, leprosy, legionnaires’ disease and epidemic typhus can resist killing by macrophages. These agents escape destruction by developing adaptive devices which generally prevent or minimize contact between them and the microbicidal substances within the lysosomes (2,6,9,17,19). Leishmania species are unique in that they allow fusion of the phagosome with lysosomes but survive and multiply in the resulting phagolysosomes. The phagolysosomal environment in murine, and human phagocytes is distinctly acidic with a pH between 4.0 and 5.0 (4,7,8). Amastigote survival in vivo must involve strategies affecting several levels of host parasite interactions. However, this discussion will be restricted to some of the adaptations which enable the parasite to cope with an acidic environment.

Keywords

Tuberculosis Respiration Vanadate Proline Trop 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alexander, J. and Vickerman, K. 1974. J. Protozool. 22:502–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Armstrong, J.A. and D’Arcy Hart, P. 1971. J. Exp. Med. 134:713–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    den Hollander, J.A., Ugurbil, K., Brown, T.R. and Shulman, R.G. 1981. Biochemistry 20:5871–5880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geisow, M.J., D’Arcy Hart, P. and Young, M.R. 1981. J. Cell Biol. 89:645–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gottlieb, M. and Dwyer, D.M. 1981. Exp. Parasitol. 52:117–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Horwitz, M.A. 1983. J. Exp. Med. 158:2108–2126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Horwitz, M.A. and Maxfield, F.R. 1984. J. Cell Biol. 99:1936–1943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jensen, M.S. and Bainton, D.F. 1973. J. Cell Biol. 56:379–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jones, T.C. and Hirsch, J.G. 1972. J. Exp. Med. 136: 1173–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Laemmli, V.K. 1974. Nature 227:680–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lanzetta, R.A., Alvarez, L.J., Reinach, P.S. and Candia, O.A. 1979. Anal. Biochem. 100:95–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewis, D.H. and Peters, W. 1977. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 71:295–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meade, J.C., Glaser, T.A., Bonventre, P.F. and Mukkada, A.J. 1984. J. Protozool. 31:156–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mukkada, A.J. 1985. in “Transport Processes: Iono-and Osmoregulation,” Gilles, R. and Gilles-Baillien, M. ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 326–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mukkada, A.J., Long, G. and Romano, A.H. 1973. Biochem. J. 132:155–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mukkada, A.J., Meade, J.C., Glaser, T.A. and Bonventre, P.F. 1985. Science 229:1099–1101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nogueira, N. and Cohn, Z.A. 1978. J. Exp. Med. 146:288–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rottenberg, H. 1978. Methods Enzymol. 55:547–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Walker, T.S. and Winkler, H.H. 1978. Infect. Immun. 22:200–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zilberstein, D. and Dwyer, D.M. 1985. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:1716–1720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antony J. Mukkada
    • 1
  • Theresa A. Glaser
    • 1
  • Steven A. Anderson
    • 1
  • Steven K. Wells
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations