Methods and Labels in Immunoassay
Immunoassay methods relying on radioisotopic labels have played a major role in medicine and other biologically-related fields (agriculture, veterinary science, the food industry etc) during the past two decades. Their importance has derived from their exploitation both of the “structural specificity” characterizing antibody-antigen reactions and the “detectability” of isotopically-labeled reagents, the latter permitting observation of the binding reactions between exceedingly small concentrations of the key reactants involved. The combination of these features has endowed these methods with unique specificity and sensitivity characteristics, and accounts for their ubiquitous use throughout modern medicine and biology. However, in the past few years, interest has increasingly focussed on so-called “alternative”, non-radioisotopic, methods — techniques which are based on essentially the same analytical principles but which differ in the markers used to label the particular reactant (antibody or analyte) whose distribution following the basic analytical reaction constitutes the assay response.
KeywordsAnalyte Molecule Antibody Molecule Excess Reagent Antibody Binding Site Small Molecular Size
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Dakubu, S., Ekins, R., Jackson, T., Marshall, N. J., 1984, High sensitivity, pulsed light time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, in: “Practical Immunoassay. The State of the Art,” W.R. Butt, ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc., p. 71. New York.Google Scholar
- Ekins, R. P., 1983, Measurement of analyte concentration, British Patent no. 8224600.Google Scholar
- Ekins, R., 1985, Current concepts and future developments, in: “Alternative Immunoassays,” W.P. Collins, ed., John Wiley & Sons Ltd., p.219. Chichester.Google Scholar
- Ekins, R. P., Filetti, S., Kurtz, A. B., Dwyer, K., 1980, A simple general method for the assay of free hormones (and drugs); its application to the measurement of serum free thyroxine levels and the bearing of assay results on the ‘free thyroxine’ concept, J.Endocrinol., 85:29.Google Scholar
- Janata, J., Blackburn, G. F., 1984, Immunochemical potentiometric sensors, Ann.NY Acad. Sci., 286.Google Scholar
- Janata, J., Huber, R. J., 1980, Chemically sensitive field effect transisters, in: “lon-sensitive Electrodes in Analytical Chemistry,” H. Freiser ed, Plenum Press, Vol 2:107.Google Scholar
- McCapra, F., Tutt, D. E., Topping, R. M., 1977, Assay method utilizing chemiluminescence. British Patent no. 1, 461,877.Google Scholar
- McGown L. B., Bright, F. V., 1984, Phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, Anal.Chem., 56:1400.Google Scholar
- Stanley, C. J., Paris, F., Plumb, A., Webb, A., Johannsson, A., 1985, Enzyme amplification: A new technique for enhancing the speed and sensitivity of enzyme immunoassays, Int.Clin.Products Review July/ August 1985, 44.Google Scholar
- Weeks, I., Campbell, A. K., Woodhead, S., McCapra, F., 1984, Immunoassays using chemiluminescent labels in: “Practical Immunoassay. The State of the Art,” W.R. Butt, ed., Marcel Dekker, Inc. p. 103, New York.Google Scholar
- Yamamoto, N., Yoshikatsu, N., Sadanobu, S., Tsubomura, H., Sawai, M., Okumura, H., 1980, Antigen-antibody reaction investigated with use of a chemically modified electrode, Clin.Chem., 26:1539.Google Scholar