Infant Body Composition Measurements as an Assessment of Nutritional Status

  • Buford L. Nichols
  • Hwai-Ping Sheng
  • Kenneth J. Ellis
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 55)


Growth is both a determinant and an index of the unique nutritional needs of childhood. Although growth can be defined simply as an accumulation of nutrient stores, it actually consists of an integration of cellular differentiation, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy, which results in structural and functional maturation of tissues. Rapid growth in the human occurs during the fetal, nursling, and pubertal stages of development. Childhood, a prolonged period of relatively slower growth, separates the nursling and pubertal stages.


Body Composition Bone Mineral Content Lean Body Mass Body Density Total Body Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Behnke, A. R., Feen, B. G., and Welham, V. C., 1942, The specific gravity of healthy men: Body weight and volume as an index to obesity, J. Am. Wed. Assoc., 118:495.Google Scholar
  2. Borkan, G. A., Hults, D. E., Cardarelli, J., and Burrows, B. A., 1982, Comparison of ultrasound and skinfold measurements in assessment of subcutaneous and total fatness, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 58:307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brozek, J., 1963. Body conposilion, Parts I and II, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110:1.Google Scholar
  4. Burmeister. W., and Romahn, A., 1973. Potassium content in full-term and premature babies: Energetics for the synthesis of body cell mass. in: “Current Aspects of Perinatology and Physiology of Children.” Linneweh, F., ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  5. Cochran, W. J., Klish, W.J., Wong, W. W., and Klein, P. D., 1986, Total body electrical conductivity used to determine body composition in infants, Pediatr. Res., 20:561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohn, S. H., 1985, How valid are bioelectric impedance measurements in body composition studies? Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 42:889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohn, S.H., Vaswani, A. N., Yasumura. S., Yuen, K., and Ellis, K.J., 1984, Improved models for determination of body fat by in vivo neutron activation, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 40: 255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Conway, J. M., Motrin, K. H., and Bodvell, C. E., 1984, A nev approach for the estimation of body composition: Infrared interactance, Am. J. Clin. Nutr, 40:1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dell, R., Aksoy, Y., Kashyap, S., Forsythe, M., Ramakrishnan, R., Zucker, C., and Heird, W. C., 1987, Relationship between density and body weight in prematurely born infants receiving different diets,in: “In Vivo Body Composition Studies,” K. J. Ellis, S. Yasumura, and W. D. Horgan, eds., The Institute of Physical Medicine, London.Google Scholar
  10. Deskins, W. G., Winter, D., Sheng, H.-P., and Garza, C., 1985, Use of a resonating cavity to measure body volume, J. Acoust. Soc.Am., 77:756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fee, B. A. and Weil, W. B., Jr., 1963, Body composition of infants of diabetic mothers by direct analysis, Ann. N.Y. Acad., Sci,110:869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fiorotto, M. L., Cochran, W. J., Funk, R. C., Sheng, H.-P., and Klish, W. J., 1987, Total body electrical conductivity measurements: Effects of body composition and geometry, Am. J. Physiol., 252:R794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fomon, S. J., Haschke, F., Ziegler, E. E., and Nelson, S. E., 1982, Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 35:1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Forbes, G. B., and Lewis, A., 1956, Total body sodium, potassium, and chloride in adult man, J. Clin. Invest., 35:596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Friis-Hansen, B., 1961, Body water compartments in children, Pediatrics 28: 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fuller, M. F., Foster, M. A., and Hutchison, J. M. S., 1985, Estimation of body fat by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, Proc. Nutr. Soc., 44:108A.Google Scholar
  17. Garn, S. N., and Nolan, P., Jr., 1963, A tank to measure body volume by water displacement (BOVOTA), Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110:91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gnaedinger, R. H., Reineke, E. P., Pearson, A. M., Van Huss, W. D., Vessel, J. A., and Montoye, H. J., 1963, Determination of body density by air displacement, helium dilution, and underwater weighing, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 110:96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gotfredsen, A., Jensen, J., Borg, J., and Christiansen, C., 1986, Measurement of lean body mass and total body fat using dual photon absorptiometry, Metabolism, 35: 38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hager A., Sjostron L., Arividsson B., Bjorntoip P., and Smith V., 1977, Body fat and adipose tissue cellularity in Infants: a longitudinal Study, Metabolism, 26: 607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harrison, G. G., and Van Itallie, T. B., 1982, Estimation of body composition: A new approach based on electromagnetic principles, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35:1176.Google Scholar
  22. Kehayias, J.J., Ellis, K.J.. Cohn, S.H., Yasumura, S., and Weinlein, J.H., 1987, Use of pulsed neutron generator for in vivo measurement of body carbon, in: “In vivo body composition studies,” Ellis KJ, Yasumura S, and Morgan VD, eds., Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine, London.Google Scholar
  23. Knight. G. S., Beddoe, A. H., Streat, S. J., and Hill, G. L., 1986, Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis. Am. J. Physiol., 250:E179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewis, D. S., Rollwitz, W. L., Bertrand, H. A., and Masoro, E. J., 1986, Use of NMR for measurement of total body water and estimation of body fat, J. Appl. Physiol., 60:836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lohnan, T. G. 1981, Skin folds and body density and their relation to body fatness: A review, Human Biol., 53: 181.Google Scholar
  26. Lukaski, H. C., Johnson, P. E., Bolonchuk, W. W., and Lykken, G. I.,1985, Assessment of fat-free mass using bioelectrical impedance measurements of the human body. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 41:810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. McManus, W. R., Prichard, R. K., Baker, C., and Petruchenia, M. V., 1969, Estimation of water content by tritium dilution of animals subjected to rapid live weight changes, J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge, 72:31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meneely, G. R., Heyssel, R. N., Ball, C. O. T., Weiland, R. L., Lorimer, A. R., Constantinides, C., and Meneely, E. U., 1963, Analysis of factors affecting body composition determined from potassium content in 915 normal subjects, Ann. H.Y. Acad. Sci., 110: 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moulton, C. R., 1923, Age and chemical development in mammals, J. Biol. Chem., 57:79.Google Scholar
  30. Pace, N., and Rathbun, E. N., 1945, Studies on body composition, III. Water and chemically contained nitrogen content in relation to fat content, J. Biol. Chem., 158:685.Google Scholar
  31. Pearson, A. M., PurcKas, R. V., and Reineke, E. P., 1968, Theory and potential usefulness of body density as a predictor of body composition. in: “Body Composition in Animals and Man: Proceedings of a Symposium,” National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  32. Rudd, T.G., Pailthorp, K.G., Nelp. V.B., 1972, Measurement of nonexchangeable sodium in normal man., J. Lab. Clin. Med., 80: 442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Segal, K. R., Gutin, B., Presta, E., Wang, J., and Van Itallie, T. B., 1985, Estimation of human body composition by electrical impedance methods: A comparative study, J. Appl. Physiol., 58:1565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sheng H.-P., Dang T., Adolph A. L. Schanler R. J., and Garza C., 1987, Infant Body Volume measurements by acoustic plethysmography, U: In Vivo Body Composition Studies, K. J. Ellis, S. Yasumura, and V. D. Morgan, eds. The Institute of Physical Medicine, London.Google Scholar
  35. Sheng, H.-P., and Huggins, R. A., 1979, A review of body composition studies with emphasis on total body water and fat, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 32:630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Shepherd, R. W., Oxborough, D. B., Holt, T. L., Thomas, B. J., and Thong, Y. H., 1988, Longitudinal study of the body composition of weight gain in exclusively breast-fed and intake-measured whey-based formula-fed infants to age 3 months, J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 7:732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shields, R. G., Jr., Nahan, D. C., and Grahan, P. L., 1963, Changes in swine body composition from birth to 145 kg, J. Anim. Sci., 57:43.Google Scholar
  38. Spady, D. W., Filipow, L. J. Overton, T. R., and Szynmanski, W. A., 1986, Measurement of total body potassium in premature infants by means of a whole-body counter, J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 5: 750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Steichen, J. J., Gratton T. L., Tsang R. C., 1980, Osteopenia of prematurity: The cause and possible treatment, J. Pediatr., 96:528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Steichen, J. J., Steichen-Asch, P. A., Tsang, R. C., 1988, Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues, J. Pediatr., 113:181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Taylor, A., Aksoy, Y., Scopest, J. W., du Mont, G., and Taylor, B. A., 1985, Development of an air displacement method for whole body volume measurement of infants, J. Biomed. Eng., 7:9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Widdowson, E. N., and Dickerson, J. W. T., 1964, Chemical composition of the body, in “Mineral Metabolism,” Cornar, C. E. and Bronner, F., eds. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Wright, L.L., Glade. M.J., Gopal, J., 1987, The use of transmission ultrasonics to assess bone status in the human newborn, Pediatr. Res., 22: 541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ziegler, E. E., O’Donnell, A. M., Kelson, S. F., and Fomon, S. J., 1976, Body composition of the reference fetus, Growth, 40: 329.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Buford L. Nichols
    • 1
  • Hwai-Ping Sheng
    • 1
  • Kenneth J. Ellis
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of PediatricsBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations