Adrenergic and muscarinic receptor regulation and therapeutic implications in heart failure

  • Wilhelm Schmitz
  • Peter Boknik
  • Bettina Linck
  • Frank U. Müller
Part of the Developments in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry book series (DMCB, volume 17)


In end-stage heart failure the expression of different myocardial regulatory proteins involved in the β-adrenergic cAMP signalling pathway is altered. The downregulation of β1-adrenoceptors and their uncoupling from the effector as well as an increased expression of the inhibitory GTP-binding protein seem to be the most important alterations. Since catecholamine levels are elevated in these patients and since some alterations can be ‘restored’ after treatment with β-adrenoceptor antagonists it was hypothesized that excessive β-adrenergic stimulation could be involved in these alterations.

In this article the changes of β-adrenergic receptors, GTP-binding proteins, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and of phospholamban found in heart failure are addressed with its possible therapeutic implications.

Key words

heart failure adrenergic receptor muscarinic receptor G-protein phosphodiesterase inhibitor angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor β-adrenoceptor antagonist 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilhelm Schmitz
    • 1
  • Peter Boknik
    • 1
  • Bettina Linck
    • 1
  • Frank U. Müller
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Pharmakologie und ToxikologieWestfälische Wilhelms-UniversitätMünsterGermany

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