The high unit costs of aquaculture feeds reflect the carnivorous feeding habits of the majority of intensively farmed species of fish and shrimp. These animals are unable to utilize significant proportions of carbohydrates in their diets, which in most types of other livestock feeds provide cheap and available sources of energy (Table 5-1). As a consequence many feeds used in aquaculture are heavily dependent on the use of expensive marine products such as fish meals and oils to provide sufficient quantities of essential nutrients and supplies of energy. In addition, our knowledge of nutritional requirements of most farmed species is far from complete, a factor that leads to the excess use of certain essential ingredients in order to ensure that deficiencies do not occur.
KeywordsStarch Dust Steam Carotenoid Choline
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