Nonsurgical Treatments for Erectile Dysfunction: Oral, Topical, Intracavernous, and Vacuum Devices

  • Alvaro Morales
  • Jeremy P. W. Heaton


The availability of vasoactive drugs for intracavernosal injection has been one of the most significant milestones in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. It has allowed meticulous investigation of the physiologic process of penile erection and opened up viable therapeutic alternatives for the patient with mild to moderate alterations at the level of the corpora. Equally important, the advent of injectable vasoactive drugs has permitted large strides in our understanding of the physiologic mechanisms of erection. The elucidation of many of those mechanisms at the cellular level has permitted the development of therapeutic strategies based on sound pharmacologic principles. We are getting closer to the availability of effective, noninvasive medications. This accomplishment is not the result of fortuitous progress: it is the culmination of dedicated and applied research to an area that for decades has remained in the background of medical interest.


Erectile Dysfunction Erectile Function Penile Erection Penile Prosthesis Testosterone Enanthate 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alvaro Morales
  • Jeremy P. W. Heaton

There are no affiliations available

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