Advertisement

Gynecologic Malignancies

  • Scott Wadler

Abstract

Tumors of the female reproductive organs are heterogeneous with regard to histology, natural history, clinical behavior, and methods of treatment. Appropriate treatment requires careful diagnostic evaluation to distinguish them from other malignancies of the pelvis, including sigmoid, rectal, and bladder cancer, as well as from metastatic lesions, such as Krukenberg tumors. Accurate staging is critical because therapy is virtually always guided by extent of spread. Treatment of these malignancies requires a thorough understanding of their natural history and should not be attempted by those with little experience in this field. Optimal conditions for diagnosis, staging, and therapy require excellent communication between medical and radiation oncologists, the radiologist, and the surgeon. This is particularly true in those instances in which multimodality therapy is contemplated.

Keywords

Ovarian Cancer Cervical Cancer Ovarian Carcinoma Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Endometrial Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Van Nagell JR, Gal ion HH, DePriest PD: Ovarian cancer screening. Cancer 1995, 75: 2642.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Institutes of Health. Consensus Conference. Gynecol Oncol 1994; 55: S177.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Takahashi H, Behbakht K, McGovern PE, et al.: Mutation analysis of the BRCA1 gene in ovarian cancers. Cancer Res 1995, 55: 2998–3002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Merajver SD, Pham TM, Caduff RF, et al.: Somatic mutations in the BRCA1 gene in sporadic ovarian tumours. Nat Genet 1995, 9: 439–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ford D, Easton DF, Peto J: Estimates of the gene frequency of BRCA1 and its contribution to breast and ovarian cancer incidence. Am JHum Genet 1995, 57: 1457–1462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stratton JF, Gaythier SA, Russell P, et al.: Contribution of BRCA1 mutations to ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1997, 336: 1125–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics: Annual report on the results of treatment in gynecologic cancer. Intl Gynecol Obstet 1989, 28: 189–190.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Society of Gynecologic Oncologists: Practice guidelines for gynecologic malignancies. Oncology 1997, 12: 129–133.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Young RC, Walton LA, Ellenberg SS, et al.: Adjuvant therapy in stage I and stage II epithelial ovarian cancer: results of two prospective randomized trials. N Eng1 J Med 1990, 322: 1021–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Society of Gynecologic Oncology: Treatment recommendations. Oncology 1997, 12: 129–133.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the American Cancer Society: The National Cancer Data Base report on ovarian cancer treatment in United States hospitals. Cancer 1996, 78: 2236–2246.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alberts DS, Liu PY, Hannigan EV, et al.: Intraperitoneal cisplatin plus intravenous cydophosphamide versus intravenous cisplatin plus intravenous cydophosphamide for stage III ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1996, 335: 1950–1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rowinsky EK, Donehower RC: Paclitaxel (Taxol). N Engl J Med 1995, 332: 1004–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McGuire WP, Hoskins WJ, Brady MF, et al.: Cyclophosphamide and cisplatin compared with paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with stage III and stage IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1996, 334: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Piccart MJ, Bertelsen K, James K, et al.: Randomized intergroup trial of cisplatin-paclitaxel versus cisplatin-cydophosphamide in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: three-year results. JNatl Cancer Inst 2000, 92: 699–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muggia FM, Braly PS, Brady MF, et al.: Phase III randomized study of cisplatin versus paclitaxel versus cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with suboptimal stage III or IV ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2000, 18: 106–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    ICON Collaborators: ICON2: Randomised trial of single agent carboplatin against three-drug combination of CAP (cydophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) in women with ovarian cancer. Lancet 1998, 352: 1571–1576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Joly F, Heron JF, Kerbrat P, et al.: High-dose platinum versus standard dose in advanced ovarian carcinoma: a randomized trial from the Gynecologic Cooperative Group of the French Comprehensive Cancer Centers (FNCLCC). Gynecol Oncol 2000, 78: 361–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coleman RL, Bagnell KG, Townley PM: Carboplatin and short-infusion paclitaxel in high-risk and advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma. Cancer JSciAm 1997, 3: 246–253.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    ten Bokkel Huinink WW, van Warmerdam LJC, et al.: Phase II study of the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol 1997, 8: 351–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Neijt JP, Engelholm SA, Tuxen MK, et al.: Exploratory phase III study of paclitaxel and cisplatin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin in advanced ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000, 18: 3084–3092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Neijt JP, Engelholm SA, Tuxen MK, et al.: Exploratory phase III study of paclitaxel and cisplatin versus paclitaxel and carboplatin in advanced ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000, 18: 3084–3092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eisenhauer EA, Vermorken JB, van Glabbeke M: Predictors of response to subsequent chemotherapy in platinum pretreated ovarian cancer: a multivariate analysis of 704 patients. Ann Oncol 1997, 8: 963–968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tuxen MK, Straus G, Lund B, et al.: The role of second-look laparotomy in the long-term survival in ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol 1997, 8:643–648.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    van der Burg MEL, van Lent, Kobierska A et al.: Intervention debulking surgery (IDS) does improve survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): an EORTC Gynecologic Cancer Cooperative Group (GCCG) study. ProcAm Soc Clin Oncol 1993, 12: 258.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    van der Burg MEL. More than 20 years second-look surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: what did we learn. Ann Oncol 1997, 8: 627–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thigpen JT: Dose-intensity in ovarian carcinoma: hold, enough? J Clin Oncol 1997, 15: 1291–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Creemers GJ, Bolis G, Gore M, et al.: Topotecan, an active drug in the second-line treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer: results of a large European phase II study. J Clin Oncol 1996, 14: 3056–3061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hochster H, Wadler S, Speyer J, et al.: Activity and pharmacodynamics of 21-day topotecan infusion in patients with ovarian cancer previously treated with platinum-based therapy. J Clin Ones 1999, 17: 2553–2561.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    ten Bokkel Huinink WW, Gore M, Carmichael J, et a1.:Topotecan versus paclitaxel for the treatment of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997, 15: 2183–2193.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gordon AN, Granai CO, Rose PG, et al.: Phase II study of liposomal doxorubicin in platinum- and paclitaxel-refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2000, 18: 3093–3100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wilkinson EJ: Pap smears and screening for cervical cancer. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1990, 33: 817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Creasman WT: New gynecologic cancer staging. Gynecol Oncol 1995, 55: 157–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    National Institutes of Health: Consensus statement. Cervical Cancer. 1996, 14: 1–38.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Keys HM, Bundy BN, Stehman FB et al.: Cisplatin, radiation and adjuvant hysterectomy compared with radiation and adjuvant hysterectomy for bulky stage IB cervical carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1999, 340: 1154–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rose PG, Bundy BN, Watkins EB, et al.: Concurrent cisplatin-based radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 1999, 340: 1144–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Morris M, Eifel PH, Lu J, et al.: Pelvic radiation with concurrent chemotherapy compared with pelvic and para-aortic radiation for high-risk cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 1999, 340: 1137–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Peters WA, Liu PY, Barrett RJ, et al.: Concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy compared with pelvic radiation therapy alone as adjuvant therapy after radical surgery in high-risk early-stage cancer of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol 1999, 72: 443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rotman M, Pajak TF, Choi K, et al.: Prophylactic extended-field irradiation of para-aortic lymph nodes in stages IIB and bulky IB and IIA cervical carcinomas. Ten-year treatment results of RTOG 79–20. JAMA 1995, 274: 387–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bonomi P, Blessing JA, Stehman FB, et al.: Randomized trial of three cisplatin dose schedules in squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 1985, 3: 1079–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fisher B, Costantino JP, Redmond CK, et al.: Endometrial cancer in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients: findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-14. JNatl Cancer Inst 1994, 86: 527–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics: Annual report on the results of treatment in gynecologic cancer. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1989, 28: 189–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Richardson GS, MacLaughlin DT: The status of receptors in the management of endometrial cancer. Clin Obstet Gyneco 129: 628–637, 1986Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reifenstein EC: The treatment of advanced endometrial cancer with hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Gynecol Oncol 1974, 2: 377–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Podratz KC, O’Brien PC, Malkasian GD: Effects of progestational agents in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 1985, 66: 106–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Seltzer V, Vogl SE, Kaplan BH. Adriamycin and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum in the treatment of metastatic endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 19: 308–313, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Edmondson JH, Krook JE, Hilton JF, et al: Randomized phase II studies of cisplatin and a combination of cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-cisplatin (CAP) in patients with progestin-refractory advanced endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1987, 28: 20–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Muggia FM, Hornreich G, Wadler S, et al.: Overview of toxicities from a combination of doxil-paclitaxel (Paclidox) in a New York Gynecologic Oncology Group (NYGOG) study on endometrial carcinomas and sarcomas. ProcAm Soc Clin Oncol 1999, 18: 380a.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Berkowitz RS, Goldstein DP: Gestational trophoblastic diseases. Semin Oncol 1989, 16: 410–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Newlands ES, Bagshawe KD, Begent RJH, et a1.:Developments in chemotherapy for medium- and high-risk patients with gestational trophoblastic tumors (1979–1984). BrJ Obstet Gynecol 93:63–69.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Wadler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations