Advertisement

Urinary Tract Infections

  • William A. KennedyII
  • Linda M. Dairiki Shortliffe
Part of the Atlas of Clinical Urology book series (ACU)

Abstract

During the past 15 years, new imaging techniques and biologic probes have given further insight into the natural history and pathogenesis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. UTIs are one of the common causes of fever in infants and young children. These infections are probably the most common cause for renal parenchymal loss in children. Thus, the goal of managing UTIs in children is based on the early identification of factors that may increase the risk of renal parenchymal and functional loss.

Keywords

Urinary Tract Infection Vesicoureteral Reflux Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Renal Scarring Acute Pyelonephritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Asscher AW, McLachlan MSF, Verrier-Jones R, et al.: Screening for asymptomatic urinary-tract infection in schoolgirls: a two-centre feasibility study. Lancet 1973, 2(7819):1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Winberg J, Anderson HJ, Bergström T, et al.: Epidemiology of symptomatic urinary tract infection in childhood. Acta Paediatr Scand 1974, 252(suppl):1–20.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rushton H, Majd J: Pyelonephritis in male infants: how important is the foreskin? J Urol 1992, 148:733–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wiswell T, Hachey W: Urinary tract infections and the uncircumcised state: an update. Clin Pediatr 1993, 32:130–134.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wettergren B, Fasth A, Jacobsson B, et al.: UTI during the first year of life in a Göteborg area 1977–79. Pediatr Res 1980, 14:981.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Asscher AW: Urinary tract infection: the value of early diagnosis. Kidney Int 1975,7:63–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bailey RR: A overview of reflux nephropathy. In Reflux Nephropathy. Edited by Hodson JJ, Kincaid-Smith P. New York: Masson Publ USA Inc; 1979:3–13.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Savage DCL: Natural history of covert bacteriuria in schoolgirls. Kidney Int 1975, 8(suppl):90–95.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stamey TA:A clinical classification of urinary tract infections based upon origin [editorial]. South Med J 1975, 68:934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bergström T: Sex differences in childhood urinary tract infection. Arch Dis Child 1972, 47:227–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kunin CM, Deutscher R, Paquin A: Urinary tract infection in school children: an epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory study. Medicine 1964, 43:91–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Duguid JP, Clegg S, Wilson MI: The fimbrial and nonfimbrial hemagglutinins of Escherichia coli. J Med Microbiol 1978, 12:213.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Svanborg Edén C, Hanson LA: Escherichia coli pili as possible mediators of attachment to human urinary tract epithelial cells. Infect Immun 1978, 21:229.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kãllenius G, Möllby R, Svenson SB, et al.: Occurrence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in urinary tract infections. Lancet 1981, 2:1369–1372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vāsãnen V, Elo J, Tallgren LG, et al.: Mannose-resistant haemagglutination and P antigen recognition are characteristic of Escherichia coli causing primary pyelonephritis. Lancet 1981, 2:1366–1369.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bonadio W, Webster H, Wolfe A, Gorecki D: Correlating infectious outcome with clinical parameters of 1130 consecutive febrile infants aged zero to eight weeks. Pediatr Emergency Care 1993, 9:84–86.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Crain E, Gershel J: Urinary tract infections in febrile infants younger than 8 weeks of age. Pediatrics 1990, 86:363–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hoberman A, Chao H, Keller D, et al.: Prevalence of urinary tract infection in febrile infants. J Pediatr 1993, 123:17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eggli D, Tulchinsky M: Scintigraphic evaluation of pediatric urinary tract infection. Semin Nucl Med 1993, XXIII:199–218.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ginsburg CM, McCracken GHJ: Urinary tract infections in young infants. Pediatrics 1982, 69:409–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stamey TA: Pathogenesis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1980.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Busch R, Huland H: Correlation of symptoms and results of direct bacterial localization in patients with urinary tract infections. J Urol 1984, 132:282–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Giblin J, O’Connor K, Fildes R, et al.: The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in the piglet using single photon emission computerized tomography dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy: a pathological correlation.J Urol 1993, 150:759–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parkhouse H, Godley M, Cooper J, et al.: Renal imagining with 99Tcm-labelled DMSA in the detection of acute pyelonephritis: an experimental study in the pig. Nucl Med Commun 1989, 10:63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wikstad I, Hannerz L, Karlsson A, et al.: 99m Te DMSA renal cortical scintigraphy in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in rats. Pediatr Nephrol 1990, 4:331–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zafaranloo S, Gerard P, Bryk D: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in children: analysis by diagnostic modalities. Urol Radiol 1990, 12:18–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Benador D, Benador N, Slosman D, et al.: Cortical scintigraphy in the evaluation of renal parenchymal changes in children with pyelonephritis. J Pediatr 1994, 124:17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jakobsson B, Berg U, Svensson L: Renal scarring after acute pyelonephritis. Arch Dis Child 1994, 70:111–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rushton H, Majd M: Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy for the evaluation of pyelonephritis and scarring: a review of experimental and clinical studies. J Urol 1992, 148:1726–1732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Verber I, Meller S: Serial 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans after urinary infections presenting before the age of 5 years. Arch Dis Child 1989, 64:1533–1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Abbott GD: Neonatal bacteriuria: a prospective study in 1460 infants. Br Med J 1972, 1:267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Newcastle-Asymptomatic-Bacteriuria-Research-Group: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolchildren in Newcastle uponTyne. Arch Dis Child 1975, 50:90.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jakobsson B, Nolstedt L, Svensson L, et al.: 99mTechnetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children: relation to clinical and radiological findings. Pediatr Nephrol 1992, 6:328–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Govan DE, Fair WR, Friedland GW, Filly RA: Management of children with urinary tract infections, the Stanford experience. Urology 1975, VI:273–286.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ozen HA, Whitaker RH: Does the severity of presentation in children with vesicoureteric reflux relate to the severity of the disease or the need for operation? Br J Urol 1987, 60:110–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Skoog SJ, Belman AB, Majd M: A nonsurgical approach to the management of primary vesicoureteral reflux. J Urol 1987, 138:941–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ditchfield M, De Campo F, Cook DJ, et al.: Vesicoureteral reflux: an accurate predictor of acute pyelonephritis in childhood urinary tract infection? Radiology 1994, 190:413–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hansson S: Urinary incontinence in children and associated problems. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1992, 141 (suppl):47–55.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sørensen K, Lose G, Nathan E: Urinary tract infections and diurnal incontinence in girls. Eur J Pediatr 1988, 148:146–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bauer SB, Retik AB, Colodny AH, et al.: The unstable bladder of childhood. Urol Clin North Am 1980, 7:321–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kass EJ, Diokno AC, Montealegre A: Enuresis: principles of management and result of treatment. J Urol 1979, 121:794–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Koff SA: Bladder-sphincter dysfunction in childhood. Urology 1982, XIX:457–461.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Koff SA, Lapides J, Piazza DH: Association of urinary tract infection and reflux with uninhibited bladder contractions and voluntary sphincteric obstruction. J Urol 1979, 122: 373–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kondo A, Kobayashi M, Otani T, et al.: Children with unstable bladder: clinical and urodynamic observation. J Urol 1983, 129:88–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Passerini-Glazel G, Cisternino A, Camuffo MC, et al.: Video-urodynamic studies of minor voiding dysfunctions in children: an overview of 13 years’ experience. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1992, 141 (suppl):70–84.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Qvist N, Kristensen ES, Nielsen KK, et al.: Detrusor instability in children with recurrent urinary tract infection and/or enuresis. Urol Int 1986, 41:196–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    vanGool JD, Vijverberg MAW, deJong TPVM: Functional daytime incontinence: clinical and urodynamic assessment. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1992, 141 (suppl):58–69.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kjølseth D, Knudsen LM, Jadsen B, et al.: Urodynamic biofeedback training for children with bladder-sphincter dyscoordination during voiding. Neurourol Urodyn 1993, 12:211–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    O’Regan S, Yazbeck S, Schick E: Constipation, bladder instability, urinary tract infection syndrome. Clin Nephrol 1985, 23:152–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    vanGool JD, Vijverberg MAW, Messer AP, et al.: Functional daytime incontinence: non-pharmacological treatment. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1992, 141 (suppl):93–103.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kaijser B, Larsson P: Experimental acute pyelonephritis caused by enterobacteria in animals: a review. J Urol 1982, 127:786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boyarsky S, Labay P: Ureteral Dynamics: Pathophysiology Drugs, and Surgical Implications. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1972.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hinman F.: Peristalsis in the diseased ureter: a brief summary of current knowledge. In Urodynamics: Hydrodynamics of the Ureter and Renal Pelvis. Edited by Boyarsky S, Gottschalk C, Tanagho E, Zimskind P. New York: Academic Press; 1971:359.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Issa M, Shortliffe L: Effect of bacteriuria on bladder and renal pelvic pressures in the rat. J Urol 1992, 148:559–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mårild S, Hellström M, Jacobsson B, Jodal U, Svanborg C: Influence of bacterial adhesion on ureteral width in children with acute pyelonephritis. J Pediatr 1989, 115:265–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rolleston GL, Maling TMJ, Hodson CJ: Intrarenal reflux and the scarred kidney. Arch Dis Child 1974, 49:531–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ransley PG, Risdon RA: Renal papillae and intrarenal reflux in the pig. Lancet 1974, 2(7889):1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hannerz L, Kikstad I, Johansson L, et al.: Distribution of renal scars and intrarenal reflux in children with a past history of urinary tract infection. Acta Radiologica 1987, 28:443–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hodson J, MalingTMJ, McManamon PJ, Lewis MG: Reflux nephropathy. Kidney Int 1975, 8(suppl):50–58.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ransley PG, Risdon RA, Godley ML: High pressure sterile vesicoureteral reflux and renal scarring: an experimental study in the pig and minipig. In Reflux Nephropathy Update: 1983. Edited by Hodson CJ, Heptinstall RH, Winberg J. New York: S. Karger; 1984:320–343.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Glauser MP, Lyons JM, Braude AI: Prevention of chronic experimental pyelonephritis by suppression, of acute suppuration. J Clin Invest 1978, 61:403–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Miller T, Phillips S: Pyelonephritis: the relationship between infection, renal scarring, and antimicrobial therapy. Kidney Int 1981:19:654–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Miller TE, Stewart E, North JDK: Immunobacteriological aspects of pyelonephritis. Contrib Nephrol 1979, 16:11–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Roberts JA, Domingue GJ, Martin LN, et al.: Immunology of pyelonephritis in the primate model: live versus heat-killed bacteria. Kidney Int 1981, 19:297–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shimamura T: Mechanisms of renal tissue destruction in an experimental acute pyelonephritis. Exp Mol Pathol 1981, 34:34–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Slotki IN, Asscher AW: Prevention of scarring in experimental pyelonephritis in the rat by early antibiotic therapy. Nephron 1982, 30:262–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ivanyi B, and Thoenes W: Microvascular injury and repair in acute human bacterial pyelonephritis. Virchows Arch 1987, 411:257–265.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kaack MB, Dowling KJ, Patterson GM, Roberts JA: Immunology of pyelonephritis: VIII. E. coli causes granulocytic aggregation and renal ischemia. J Urol 1986, 136:1117–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Roberts JA, Roth JK Jr, Domingue G, et al.: Immunology of pyelonephritis in the primate model: V. Effect of superoxide dismutase. J Urol 1982, 128:1394–1400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Walker RD: Renal functional changes associated with vesicoureteral reflux. Urol Clin North Am 1990, 17:307–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tulassy T, Miltényi M, Dobos M: Alterations of urinary carbon dioxide tension, electrolyte handling and low molecular weight protein excretion in acute pyelonephritis. Acta Scand 1986, 75:415–419.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    åbyholm G, Monn E: Intranasal DDAVP-Test in the study of renal concentrating capacity in children with recurrent urinary tract infections. Eur J Pediatr 1979, 130:49–154.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tomlinson P, Smellie J, Prescod N, et al.: Differential excretion of urinary proteins in children with vesicoureteric reflux and reflux nephropathy. Pediatr Nephrol 1992,8:21–25.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Funston MR, Cremin BJ: Intrarenal reflux-papillary morphology and pressure relationships in children’s necropsy kidneys. Br J Urol 1978, 51:665–670.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Koff SA, Murtagh D: The uninhibited bladder in children: effect of treatment on vesicoureteral reflux resolution. In Reflux Nephropathy Update: 1983. Edited by Hodson CJ, Heptinstall RH, Winberg J. New York: S. Karger; 1984:211–220.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Savage JM, Dillon MJ, Shah V, et al.: Renin and blood-pressure in children with renal scarring and vesicoureteric reflux. Lancet 1978, 2(8087):441–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Savage JM, Koh CT, Barratt TM, Dillon MJ: Five year prospective study of plasma renin activity and blood pressure in patients with longstanding reflux nephropathy. Arch Dis Child 1987, 62:678–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kincaid-Smith P: Glomerular lesions in atrophic pyelonephritis and reflux nephropathy. Kidney Int 1975, 8:81–83.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Torres VE, Velosa JA, Holley KE, et al.: The progression of vesicoureteral reflux nephropathy. Ann Intern Med 1980, 92:776–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bailey RR, Swainson CPL, Burry AF: Glomerular lesions in the “normal” kidney in patients with unilateral reflux nephropathy. In Reflux Nephropathy Update: 1983. Edited by Hodson CJ, Heptinstall RH, Winberg J. New York: S. Karger; 1984:126–131.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kincaid-Smith PS: Diffuse parenchymal lesions in reflux nephropathy and the possibility of making a renal biopsy diagnosis in reflux nephropathy. In Reflux Nephropathy Update: 1983. Edited by Hodson CJ, Heptinstall RH, Winberg J. New York: S. Karger; 1984:111–115.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Andriole VT: The role of Tamm-Horsfall protein in the pathogenesis of reflux nephropathy and chronic pyelonephritis. Yale J Biol Med 1985, 58:91–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bollgren I, Winberg J: The periurethral aerobic bacterial flora in healthy boys and girls. Acta Paediatr Scand 1976, 65:74–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lomberg H, Hanson LÅ, Jacobsson B, et al.: Correlation of P blood group, vesicoureteral reflux, and bacterial attachment in patients with recurrent pyelonephritis. N Engl J Med 1983, 308:1189–1192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sheinfeld J, Schaeffer AJ, Cordon-Cardo C, et al.: Association of the Lewis blood-group phenotype with recurrent urinary tract infections in women. N Engl J Med 1989, 320:773–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Winberg J, Bollgren I, Gothefors L, et al.: The prepuce: a mistake of nature? Lancet 1989, 1(8683):598–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fussell EN, Kaack MB, Cherry R, Roberts JA: Adherence of bacteria to human foreskins. J Urol 1988, 140:997–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wiswell TE, Roscelli JD: Corroborative evidence for the decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics 1986, 78:96–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wiswell TE, Enzenauer RW, Holton ME, et al.: Declining frequency of circumcision: implications for changes in the absolute incidence and male to female sex ratio of urinary tract infections in early infancy. Pediatrics 1987, 79:338–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Robbins JB: Immunologic mechanisms. In Pediatrics. Edited by Barnet HL. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1972.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fliedner M, Mehls O, Rauterberg E. W, Ritz E: Urinary IgA in children with urinary tract infection. J Pediatr 1986, 109:416–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Svanborg Edén C, Kulhavy R, Mårild S, et al.: Urinary immunoglobulins in healthy individuals and children with acute pyelonephritis. Scand J Immunol 1985,21:305–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Yoder, MC, Polin RA: Immunotherapy of neonatal septicemia. Pediatr Clin North Am 1986, 33:481–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Grattan-Smith D, Harrison LF, Singleton EB: Radiology of AIDS in the pediatric patient. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 1992, 21:79–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tullus K: Fecal colonization with p-fimbriated Escherichia coli in newborn children and relation to development of extraintestinal E. coli infections. Acta Paediatr Scand 1986, 1(suppl 334):1–35.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Shortliffe L: Pregnancy changes the rules when treating UTI. Contemp Urol 1991, 3:57–67.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sweet RL: Bacteriuria and pyelonephritis during pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 1977, 1:25–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hsia TY, Shortliffe LM: The effect of pregnancy on rat urinary tract dynamics. J Urol 1995, 154:684–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hutch JA: Vesico-ureteral reflux in the paraplegic: cause and correction. J Urol 1952, 68:457–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dele Davies H, Ford Jones E, Sheng R, et al.: Nosocomial urinary tract infections at a pediatric hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992, 11:349–354.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lohr J, Downs S, Dudley S, Donowitz L: Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in the pediatric patient: a prospective study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994, 13:8–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ashkenazi S, Even-Tov S, Samra Z, Dinari G: Uropathogens of various childhood populations and their antibiotic susceptibility. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991, 10:742–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hardy J, Furnell P, Brumfitt W: Comparison of sterile bag, clean catch and suprapubic aspiration in the diagnosis of urinary infection in early childhood. Br J Urol 1976, 48:279–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Barkemeyer B: Suprapubic aspiration of urine in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 1994, 457–459.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hallender HO, Kallner A, Lundin A, Österberg E: Evaluation of rapid methods for the detection of bacteriuria (screening) in primary health care. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 1986, 94:39–49.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lohr J: Use of routine urinalysis in making a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991, 10:646–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hoberman A, Wald E, Reynolds E, et al.: Pyuria and bacteriuria in urine specimens obtained by catheter from young children with fever. J Pediatr 1994, 124:513–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hellerstein S: Recurrent urinary tract infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis 1982, 1:271–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kass EH, Finland M: Asymptomatic infections of the urinary tract. Trans Assoc Am Phys 1956, 69:56–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bollgren I, Engström CF, Hammarlind M, et al.: Low urinary counts of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in presumed acute pyelonephritis. Arch Dis Child 1984, 59:102–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stamm WE, Counts GW, Running KR, et al.: Diagnosis of coliform infection in acutely dysuric women. N Engl J Med 1982, 307:463–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schaad UB: Use of quinolones in pediatrics. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1991, 10:355–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Copenhagen Study Group of Urinary Tract Infections in Children: Short-term treatment of acute urinary tract infection in girls. Scand J Infect Dis 1991, 23:213–220.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gaudreault P, Beland M, Girodias J, Thivierge R: Single daily doses of trimetho-prim/sulphadiazine for three or 10 days in urinary tract infections. Acta Paediatr 1992, 81:695–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jójárt G: Comparison of 3-day versus 14-day treatment of lower urinary tract infection in children. Int Urol Nephrol 1991, 23:129–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lohr JA, Hayden GF, Kesler RW, et al.: Three-day therapy of lower urinary tract infections with nitrofurantoin macrocrystals: a randomized clinical trial. Pediatrics 1981, 99:980–983.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Grimwood K, Abbott GD, Fergusson DM: Single dose gentamicin treatment of urinary infections in children. N Z Med J 1988, 101:539–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Khan A: Efficacy of single-dose therapy of urinary tract infection in infants and children: a review. J Natl Med Assoc 1994, 86:690–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Madrigal G, Odio CM, Mohs E, et al.: Single dose antibiotic therapy is not as effective as conventional regimens for management of acute urinary tract infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1988, 7:316–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Martinez FC, Kindrachuk RW, Thomas E, Stamey TA: Effect of prophylactic, low dose cephalexin on fecal and vaginal bacteria. J Urol 1985, 133:994–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Conway JJ: The role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection. Semin Nucl Med 1988, XVIII:308–319.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Filly R, Friedland GW, Govan DE, Fair WR: Development and progression of clubbing and scarring in children with recurrent urinary tract infections. Pediatr Radiol 1974, 113:145–153.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gordon I: Use of Tc-99m DMSA andTc-99m DTPA in reflux. Semin Urol 1986, IV:99–108.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Johansson B, Troell S, Berg U: Urographic renal size in acute pyelonephritis in childhood. Acta Radiol 1988, 29:155–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Troell S, Berg U, Johansson B, Wikstad I: Ultrasonographic renal parenchymal volume related to kidney function and renal parenchymal area in children with recurrent urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria. Acta Radiol Diagn (Stockh) 1984, 25:411–416.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kogan SJ, Sigler L, Levitt SB, et al.: Elusive vesicoureteral reflux in children with normal contrast cystograms. J Urol 1986, 136:325–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Macpherson RI, Gordon L: Vesicoureteric reflux: radiologic aspects. Semin Urol 1986, IV:89–98.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cleveland R, Constantinou C, Blickman J, et al.: Voiding cystourethrography in children: value of digital fluoroscopy in reducing radiation dose. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1992, 158:137–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lebowitz R: The detection and characterization of vesicoureteral reflux in the child. J Urol 1992, 148:1640–1642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kleinman P, Diamond D, Karellas A, et al.: Tailored low-dose fluoroscopic voiding cystourethrography for the reevaluation of vesicoureteral reflux in girls. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1994, 162:1151–1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lebowitz R: The detection of vesicoureteral reflux in the child. Invest Radiol 1986, 21:519–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Shortliffe L: Urinary tract infections in infants & children. In Campbell’s Urology, edn 7. Edited by Walsh et al. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1997.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ransley PG: Intrarenal reflux: anatomical, dynamic, and radiological studies: part 1. Urol Res 1977, 5:61–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hodson CJ: Natural history of chronic pyelonephritic scarring. Br J Med 1965, 2:191–194.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. KennedyII
  • Linda M. Dairiki Shortliffe

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations