Vesicoureteral Reflux

  • Joseph G. Borer
  • David A. Diamond
Part of the Atlas of Clinical Urology book series (ACU)


In the normal state, the submucosal ureter is compressed against a firm detrusor muscle backing as the bladder fills with urine. This “flap valve” mechanism prevents retrograde flow of urine while permitting intermittent antegrade urine passage during ureteral peristalsis. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder to the upper urinary tract and is thought, in its primary form, to be the result of deficient submucosal tunnel length with deficient detrusor muscle backing. The prevalence of reflux in normal children has been reported to range from 1% [1] to 18.5% [2]. Approximately one third of siblings of children known to have the disorder are afflicted [3], as are 67% of offspring of a parent with VUR [4]. One of several causes within the broad spectrum of anatomic or functional bladder outlet obstruction or abnormalities in ureteral insertion may be responsible for secondary reflux.


Vesicoureteral Reflux Posterior Urethral Valve Distal Ureter Ureteral Orifice Left Ureter 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph G. Borer
  • David A. Diamond

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