Auditory-Vocal Integration in the Midbrain of the Mustached Bat: Periaqueductal Gray and Reticular Formation

  • Nobuo Suga
  • Yukio Yajima


Acoustic communication and echolocation involve the auditory and vocal systems. In order to understand these systems, research should be performed not only on each system in isolation, but also on auditory-vocal integration. How is the signal processing by the auditory system influenced by vocal activity? How is the activity of the vocal system modified by acoustic stimuli? To date, neurophysiological studies directly related to these questions are very limited, but there are several papers worth mentioning.


Inferior Colliculus Acoustic Stimulus Noise Burst Vocal Response Tone Pulse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Gooler, D. M., 1987, Species specific vocalizations elicited by microstimulation of anterior cingulate cortex in the echolocating bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii: Characteristics of emissions and topographic representation of vocal frequency. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Rochester, N.Y.Google Scholar
  2. Gooler, D. M. and O’Neill, W. E., 1987, Topographic representation of vocal frequency demonstated by microstimulation of anterior cingulate cortex in the echolocating bat, Pteronotus parnelli parnelli. J. Comp. Physiol. A 160: (in press).Google Scholar
  3. Jen, P. H.-S. and Suga, N., 1976, Coordinated activities of middle-ear and laryngeal muscles in echolocating bats. Science. 191:950–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jürgens, U. and Ploog, D., 1981, On the neural control of mammalian vocalization. TINS. June: 135–137.Google Scholar
  5. Kawasaki, M., Margoliash, D. and Suga, N., 1988, Delay-tuned combination-sensitive neurons in the auditory cortex of the vocalizing mustached bat. J. Neurophysiol. (in press).Google Scholar
  6. Larson, C. R. and Kistler, M. K., 1984, Periaqueductal gray neuronal activity associated with laryngeal EMG and vocalization in the awake monkey. Neurosci. Letters. 42:261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McCasland, J. S. and Konishi, M., 1981, Interaction between auditory and motor activities in an avian song control nucleus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:7815–7819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. O’Neill, W. E., Schuller, G., and Radtke-Schul1er, S., 1985, Functional and anatomical similarities in the auditory cortices of the old world horseshoe bat and neotropical mustached bat for processing similar biosonar signals. Winter meeting of Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. Abst. No.193.Google Scholar
  9. Rübsamen, R. and Schweizer, H., 1986, Control of echolocation pulses by neurons of the nucleus ambiguus in the rufons horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus rouxi. II. Afferent and efferent connections of motor nucleus of the laryngeal nerves. J. Comp. Physiol.. A 159:689–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rübsamen, R. and Schuller, G., 1981, Laryngeal nerve activity during pulse emission in the CF-FM bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. II. The recurrent laryngeal nerve. J. Comp. Physiol.. A 143:323–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Schuller, G., 1979, Vocalization influences auditory processing in collicular neurons of the CF-FM bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. J. Comp. Physiol.. 132:39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Suga, N., 1965, Functional properties of auditory neurones in the auditory cortex of echolocating bats. J. Physiol., 181:671–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Suga, N., 1973, Feature extraction in the auditory system of bats, in: “Basic Mechanisms in Hearing,” Ed. Moller, A.R. Academic Press, N.Y. 675–742.Google Scholar
  14. Suga, N., 1984, The extent to which biosonar information is represented in the bat auditory cortex, in: “Dynamic Aspects of Neocortical Function,” Eds. Edelman, G.M., Gall, W.E. and Cowan, W.M., John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 315–373.Google Scholar
  15. Suga, N., Niwa, H., Taniguchi, I. and Margoliash, D., 1987, The personalized auditory cortex of the mustached bat: adaptation for echolocation. J. Neurophysiol., 58 (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Suga, N. and Schlegel, P., 1972, Neural Attenuation of responses to emitted sounds in echolocating bats. Science. 177:82–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Suga, N., Schlegel, P., Schimozawa, T., and Simmons, J. A., 1973, Orientation sounds evoked from echolocating bats by electrical stimulation of the brain. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54:793–797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Suga, N. and Shimozawa, T., 1974, Site of neural attenuation of responses to self-vocalized sounds in echolocating bats. Science 183:1211–1213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Suga, N., Simmons, J. A., and Shimozawa, T., 1974, Neurophysiological studies on echolocation systems in awake bats producing CF-FM orientation sounds. J. Exp. Biol. 61:379–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Suga, N. and Tsuzuki, K., 1985, Inhibition and level-tolerant frequency tuning in the auditory cortex of the mustached bat. J. Neurophysiol.. 53:1109–1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Suthers, R. A., 1988, The production of echolocation signals by bats and birds, in: “Animal Sonar Systems”, Ed: Nachtigall, P.E., Plenum, N.Y. (in press).Google Scholar
  22. Suthers, R. A. and Fattu, J. M., 1973, Mechanisms of sound production by echolocating bats. Am. Zool., 13:1215–1226.Google Scholar
  23. Williams, H., 1985, Sexual dimorphism of auditory activity in the zebra finch song system. Beh. Neu. Biol., 44:470–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Williams, H. and Nottebohm, F., 1985, Auditory responses in avian vocal motor neurons: A motor theory for song perception in birds. Science 229:279–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nobuo Suga
    • 1
  • Yukio Yajima
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations