Layoffs: What Does Flexibility Really Cost?

  • Dan L. Ward


Layoffs are a commonly accepted practice in most industrialized nations. Employers use temporary or long-term layoffs as a means to adjust costs when there is a decline in the demand for products or services. It has been estimated that over twelve million Americans were laid off during the earlier eighties. At least two million of these were due to the permanent elimination of positions because of technological displacement.


Administrative Cost Vacation Time Temporary Assignment Wage Reduction Temporary Layoff 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dan L. Ward
    • 1
  1. 1.GTE Communication Systems CorporationPhoenixUSA

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