Cortical Monoamines and Injured Brain
It is well established that brain injury which causes gross damage to vascular elements results in opening of the blood-brain barrier and an extravasation of fluid, giving rise to vasogenic edema (Katzman and Pappius, 1973). The edema has been generally accepted as the underlying cause of functional disturbances in conditions in which it occurs, although this assumption has not been validated and has been questioned (Pappius and McCann, 1969; Sutton et al., 1980; Pappius and Wolfe, 1984). On the other hand, brain injury is associated with many other events all of which can be envisaged as leading to disturbances of neuronal function independently of the develop-ment of cerebral edema (Pappius and Wolfe, 1984). These include release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids and formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes (Wolfe, 1982), release of neurotransmitters (Fenske et al., 1976; Bareggi et al., 1975; Vecht et al., 1975) and possibly the generation of free radicals (Demopoulos et al., 1972). In the context of this sym-posium, effects of injury on neurotransmitter systems are of particular interest.
KeywordsDepression Dopamine Serotonin Norepinephrine Neurol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bloom, F. E., 1981, Chemical signaling and cortical circuitry: Integrative aspects, in: The Organization of the Cerebral Cortex(F. O. Schmitt, F. G. Worden, G. Adelman, and S. G. Dennis, eds.), MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 359–370.Google Scholar
- Demopoulos, H. B., Milvy, R., Kakari, S., and Ransohoff, J., 1972, Molecular aspects of membrane structure in cerebral edema, in: Steroids and Brain Edema (H. J. Reulen and K. Schurmann, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 29–39.Google Scholar
- Fenske, A., Sinterhauf, K., and Reulen, H. J., 1976, The role of monoamines in the development of cold-induced edema, in: Dynamics of Brain Edema (H. M. Pappius and W. Fiendel, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 150–154.Google Scholar
- Katzman, R., and Pappius, H. M., 1973, Brain Electrolytes and Fluid Metabolism, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
- Kuhn, D. M., Wolf, W. A., and Youdim, M. B. H., 1986, Serotonin neurochemistry revisited: A new look at some old axioms. Critiques, Neurochenu Int. 8:141–154.Google Scholar
- Pappius, H. M., and Dadoun, R., 1986, Biogenic amines in injured brain, Trans. Am. Soc. Neurochem. 17:298.Google Scholar
- Pappius, H. M., and Wolfe, L. S., 1983c, Involvement of serotonin and catecholamines in functional depression of traumatized brain, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 3(Suppl. 1):S226–S227.Google Scholar
- Pappius, H. M., and Wolfe, L. S., 1984, Effects of drugs on local cerebral glucose utilization in traumatized brain: Mechanisms of action of steroids revisited, in: Recent Progress in the Study and Therapy of Brain Edema (G. Go and A. Baethmann, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 11–26.Google Scholar
- Pujol, J. F., Keane, P., McRae, A., Lewis, B. D., and Renaud, B., 1978, Biochemical evidence for serotonergic control of the locus coeruleus, in: Interactions between Putative Neurotransmitters in the Brain (S. Garattini, J. F. Pujol, and R. Samanin, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 401–410.Google Scholar
- Sokoloff, L., Reivich, M., Kennedy, C, Des Rosiers, M. H., Patlak, C. S., Pettigrew, K. D., Sakurada, O., and Shinohara, M., 1977, The [14C]deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: Theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat, J. Neurochem. 28:897–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Taylor, D. A., and Stone, T. W., 1981, Neurotransmodulatory control of cerebral cortical neuron activity, in: The Organization of the Cerebral Cortex(F. O. Schmitt, F. G. Worden, G. Adelman, and S. G. Dennis, eds.), MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 347–357.Google Scholar