Bile Acids in Extrahepatic Tissues



Unequivocal physical identification of individual nonhepatic bile acids is lacking, though there is evidence of the presence of cholanoic acids in brain [1, 2], skeletal muscle, kidney, pancreas, and adipose tissues [2]. The presence of cholanoic acids in tissues raises the question of whether the compounds originated by local biosynthesis or by transfer from blood after synthesis in the liver, even though it has been stated that the liver is the sole site of bile acid formation [3] without adequate evidence.


Bile Acid Cholesteryl Ester Cholic Acid Free Cholesterol Lithocholic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. J. Nicholas, in “The Bile Acids” (P. P. Nair and D. Kritchevsky, eds.), Volume 3, p. 1, Plenum Press, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Y. Oh, and J. Dupont, Lipids 10, 340 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Salen and S. Shefer, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 45, 679 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Eneroth and J. Sjövall, in “Methods in Enzymology” (R. B. Clayton, ed.), Volume 15, p. 237, Academic Press, New York (1969).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. M. Street, D. J. H. Trafford, and H. L. J. Makin, J. Lipid Res. 24, 491 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. D. R. Setchell, A. M. Lawson, N. M. Tañida, and J. Sjövall, J. Lipid Res. 24, 1085 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. M. Grundy, E. H. Ahrens, Jr., and T. A. Miettinen, J. Lipid Res. 6, 397 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. M. Weber, L. Chartrand, G. Doyon, S. Gordon, and C. C. Roy, Clin. Chim. Acta 39, 524 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Spears, D. Vukusich, S. Mangat, and B. S. Reddy, J. Chromatogr. 116, 184 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Shefer, S. Hauser, I. Bekersky, and E. H. Mosbach, J. Lipid Res. 11, 404 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. S. Fredrickson, in “The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease” (J. B. Standbury, J. B. Wyngaarden, and D. S. Fredrickson, eds.), p. 502, McGraw-Hill, New York (1972).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Y. Y. Hsia, Enzyme 13, 161 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. M. Fogelman, J. Edmond, J. Seager, and G. Popjak, J. Biol. Chem. 250, 2045 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    N. K. Dodd, C. E. Sizer, and J. Dupont, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commuti. 106, 385 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Roda, G. Cappellai, R. Aldini, E. Roda, and L. Barbara, J. Lipid Res. 23, 490 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Ewerth, I. Bjòrkhem, K. Einarsson, and L. Ost, J. Lipid Res. 23, 1183 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. D. Manes and D. L. Schneider, J. Lipid Res. 12, 376 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. K. Goswami and C. F. Frey, J. Chromatogr. 53, 389 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. K. Goswami and C. F. Frey, Biochem. Med. 17, 20 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Eneroth, J. Lipid Res. 4, 11 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. N. Chavez and C. L. Krone, J. Lipid Res. 17, 545 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. Fujihira, N. Takahashi, A. Minato, K. Uenoyama, T. Ogiso, and S. Hirose, Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 20, 2719 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. F. Hofmann, J. Lipid Res. 3, 127 (1962).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Dupont, S. Y. Oh, and P. Janson, in “The Bile Acids” (P. P. Nair and D. Kritchevsky, eds.), Volume 3, p. 17, Plenum Press, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Shaw, A. Smith, and W. Elliott, Anal. Biochem. 861, 450 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. L. Young and V. Rodwell, J. Lipid Res. 18, 572 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. C. Allain, L. S. Poon, C. S. G. Chan, W. Richmond, and P. C. Fu, Clin. Chem. 20, 470 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. E. Carlson, A. D. Mitchell, and S. Goldfarb, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 531, 115 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. S. Sandhu, Clin. Chem. 22, 1973 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. J. Fletcher, Clin. Chim. Acta 22, 393 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. A. Turnberg and A. Anthony-Mote, Clin. Chim. Acta 24, 253 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. A. Siskas, P. T. Cahill, and N. B. Javitt, J. Lipid Res. 18, 666 (1977).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. J. Havel, H. A. Eder, and J. H. Bragdon, J. Clin. Invest. 34, 1345 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Hennig and J. Dupont, J. Nutr. 113, 1104 (1983).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    W. P. Jencks and E. L. Durrum, J. Clin. Invest. 34, 1437 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. C. Territo, D. W. Golde, and M. J. Cline, in “Manual of Clinical Immunology” (N. R. Rose, and H. Friedman, eds.), p. 142, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC (1976).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    I. Davidsohn and D. A. Nelson, in “Clinical Diagnosis,” 15th ed. (I. Davidsohn and J. B. Henry, eds.), p. 149, Saunders, Philadelphia (1974).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. Shaw and W. H. Elliott, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 5, 433 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Consumer and Food Economic Institute expansion of data published in, “Nutritive Value of American Foods in Common Units,” U.S. Department of Agriculture data sets No. 456–1, 456–2, Washington, DC (1977).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. M. Dietschy and M. S. Brown, J. Lipid Res. 15, 508 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, “Hypertension in Adults 25–74 Years of Age, United States 1971–1975,” Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, No. 221, DHHS(PHS) Pub. No. 81–1671, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD (1981).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    H. Juustila, Acta Med. Scand. 613 (Suppl.), 94 (1977).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. N. Adel, Q. B. Deming, M. M. Daly, V. M. Raeff, and L. M. Brun, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 66, 571 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    N. Helman and L. S. Rubenstein, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 63, 35 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    T. Otani, Arch. Fr. Pediatr. 15, 227 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    L. R. Zacharski, L. R. Elveback, and J. W. Unman, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 54, 148 (1971).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. A. Mackinney, Jr., J. Gerontol. 33, 213 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. M. Reddy and K. Goh, J. Gerontol. 34, 5 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. D. Friedman, A. L. Klatsky, and A. B. Siegelaub, N. Engl. J. Med. 290, 1275 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    G. Middelhoff, R. Mordasini, A. Stiehl, and H. Greten, Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 14, 267 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    D. Rudman and F. E. Kendall, J. Clin. Invest. 36, 538 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    C. W. Burke, B. Lewis, D. Panvelinalla, and S. Tabaqchali, Clin. Chim. Acta. 32, 207 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Yamamoto and Y. Yamamura, Atherosclerosis 13, 365 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. A. Story and D. Kritchevsky, Experientia 30, 242 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. Dupont, M. M. Mathias, A. A. Spindler, and P. Janson, Age 3, 19 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. S. Brown and J. L. Goldstein, Science 191, 150 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. L. Goldstein and M. S. Brown, Metabolism 26, 1257 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. Keys, O. Mickelsen, E. O. Miller, E. R. Hays, and R. L. Todd, J. Clin. Invest. 29, 1347 (1950).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    E. Y. Lawry, G. V. Mann, A. Peterson, A. P. Wysock, R. O’Connell, and F. J. Stare, Am. J. Med. 22, 605 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    I. H. Page, E. Kirk, W. H. Lewis, Jr., W. R. Thompson, and D. D. Van Slyke, J. Biol. Chem. 111, 613 (1935).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    F. J. Schilling, G. Christakis, A. Orbach, and W. H. Becker, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22, 133 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    L. A. Carlson, Acta Med. Scand. 167, 399 (I960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    D. L. Adlersberg, L. E. Schaefer, A. G. Steinberg, and C. I. Wang, JAMA 162, 619 (1956).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    W. E. Conner, D. T. Witiak, D. B. Stone, and M. L. Armstrong, J. Clin. Invest. 48, 1363 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. S. Brown, S. K. Basu, J. R. Falck, Y. K. Ho, and J. L. Goldstein, J. Supramol. Struct. 13, 67 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    H. N. Munro, in “Mammalian Protein Metabolism” (H. N. Munro and J. B. Allison, eds.), p. 3, Academic Press, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    R. B. McGandy, C. H. Barrows, Jr., A. Spanias, A. Meredity, J. L. Stone, and A. H. Morris, J. Gerontol. 21, 581 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, “Dietary Intake findings, United States 1971–74,” Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, No. 202, DHEW Pub.(HRA) 77–1647, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD (1977).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    R. D. Reeves and L. Arnrich, J. Nutr. 104, 118 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    G. S. Getz and R. V. Hay, in “The Biochemistry of Atherosclerosis,” p. 151, Dekker, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. M. Reiner, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 20, 78 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    J. Dupont, in “Cholesterol Systems in Insects and Animals” (J. Dupont, ed.), p. 117, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1982).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Y. Oschry and S. Eisenberg, J. Lipid Res. 23, 1099 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    H. B. Brewer, Jr., Klin. Wochenschr. 59, 1023 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    C. C. Schwartz, M. Berman, Z. R. Vlahcevic, L. G. Halloran, D. H. Gregory, and L. Swell, J. Clin. Invest. 61, 408 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. S. Brown, P. T. Kovanen, and J. L. Goldstein, Science 212, 628 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    J. A. Glomset, Prog. Biochem. Pharmacol. 15, 41 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    G. Heiss, N. J. Johnson, S. Reiland, C. E. Davis, and H. A. Tyroler, Circulation 62, 116 (1980).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    M. C. Phillips, L. R. McLean, G. W. Staudt, and G. H. Rothblat, Atherosclerosis 36, 409 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J. S. Patton and M. C. Carey, Science 204, 145 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    G. B. Vahouny, S. Weersing, and C. R. Treadwell, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 98, 607 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    D. Lombardo and O. Guy, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 611, 147 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    N. J. Haley, J. Lipid Res. 21, 961 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. D. Kenagy and E. L. Bierman, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 754, 174 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    S. Huterer and J. R. Wherrett, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 794, 1 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    S. K. Goswami, in “Cholesterol Systems in Insects and Animals” (J. Dupont, ed.), p. 97, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and NutritionIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Nutrition and Food ScienceUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Food and NutritionSVT College of Home Science, JuhoBombayIndia
  4. 4.Division of Food and NutritionCollege of Health, University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  5. 5.Department of Food and NutritionIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  6. 6.Department of Food and NutritionIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  7. 7.Veterinary Diagnostic LaboratoryIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  8. 8.Brikpak Inc.DallasUSA
  9. 9.Institute for Basic ResearchStaten IslandUSA

Personalised recommendations