Calculated Risks and Cold Reality

  • Kirk R. Smith
Part of the Modern Perspectives in Energy book series (MPIE)


In the previous two chapters, direct and indirect evidence of the ill-effects of biofuel smoke exposure were described along with brief discussions of what this evidence would predict to be the resulting types of ill-health in rural areas of developing countries where exposures seem highest. Logically, the next task would be to evaluate the available literature to ascertain whether existing patterns of ill-health in various rural areas are compatible with such effects. This will be done here only in a general way because, unfortunately, the rural health literature is vast, heterogeneous, inconsistent, and incomplete and thus cannot be adequately discussed and interpreted in the space available. (Appendix D gives the flavor of this literature through an examination of the health statistics relating to rural women in India.)


Cervical Cancer Smoke Exposure Acute Respiratory Infection Space Heating Lung Cancer Death Rate 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirk R. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.East-West CenterHonoluluUSA

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