Advertisement

Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

  • Yoshihiro Hamakawa
  • Hiroaki Okamoto
Part of the Advances in Solar Energy book series (AISE, volume 5)

Abstract

With the recent advances in material preparation and characterization technologies, based on ultra-high vacuum techniques and computerized measurement systems in the past ten years, remarkable progress has been made in the field of disordered materials in both theoretical and experimental aspects. As a result, wide varieties of technological applications have been achieved in the fields of amorphous metals, amorphous magnetic materials, and amorphous semiconductors. Among these new materials, amorphous semiconductors axe the most structure sensitive in their electronic and optoelectronic properties.

Keywords

Solar Cell Amorphous Silicon Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heterojunction Solar Cell Amorphous Semiconductor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe, K., Hattori, K., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., Philos. Mag., (1988) in press.Google Scholar
  2. Abeles, B., Wronski, C.R., Goldstein, Y., and Cody, G.D., (1982), Solid State Comm. 41, 250.Google Scholar
  3. Adler, D., (1984), in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 21: Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, Part A, J.I. Pankove, ed., Academic Press Inc., Chap. 14, pp. 291–316.Google Scholar
  4. Adler, D., (1983), Solar Cells, 9, 133.Google Scholar
  5. Allan, D.C., and Joannopoulos, J.D., (1984) in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 56The Physics of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon II, J.D. Joannopoulos and G. Lucovsky, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin Chap. 2, pp. 5–55.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, R.W., (1975), Phys. Rev. Lett., 34, 953.Google Scholar
  7. Aoyagi, Y., Komuro, S., Segawa, Y., Namba, S., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Physica B + C (Amsterdam) 117–118B+C, 894.Google Scholar
  8. Apfel, J.H., (1975), J. Vacuum Sei. Tech., 1016.Google Scholar
  9. Asano, A., Ichikawa, T., Uchida, Y., and Sakai, H., J. Appl. Phys., to be published.Google Scholar
  10. Baraona, C.R., and Brandhorst, H.W., (1975), Proc. 11th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., 44.Google Scholar
  11. Bar-Yam, Y., Adler, D., and Joannopoulos, J.D., (1986), Phys. Rev. Lett., 57, 467.Google Scholar
  12. Brandhorst, H.W., (1976), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 16, Supp. 399.Google Scholar
  13. Brodsky, M.H., et al., (1977), Appl. Phys. Lett., 30, 561.Google Scholar
  14. Carlson, D.E., (1977) IEEE Trans. ED; 24, 449.Google Scholar
  15. Carlson, D.E., (1980), Sol. Cell. Mater/, 3, 503.Google Scholar
  16. Carlson, D.E., and Wronsky, C.R., (1979), Amorphous Semiconductors, M.H. Brodsky, ed., Springer-Verlag, New York, Chap. 10.Google Scholar
  17. Carlson, D.E., and Wronski, C.R., (1977), Appl. Phys. Lett., 28, 671; Wronski, C.R., (1977), IEEE Trans. ED, 24, 351.Google Scholar
  18. Carlson, D.E., and Wronski, C.R., (1976), Appl. Phys. Lett., 28, 671.Google Scholar
  19. Chittick, R.C., Alexander, J.H., and Sterling, H.F., (1969), J. of Electrochem. Soc., 116, 1977.Google Scholar
  20. Chittick, R.C., Alexander, J.H., and Sterling, H.F., (1969), J. of Electro chem. Soc., 116, 77.Google Scholar
  21. Chittick, R.C., (1970), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 3, 255.Google Scholar
  22. Crandall, R., (1980), Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 607.Google Scholar
  23. Dalal, V., and Alvarez, F., (1981), J. Phys. (Orsay, Fr.) 42, C4–491.Google Scholar
  24. Dalal, V.L., Akhpar, M., and Dalahoy, A., (1982), Proc. 16th IEEE Photovol. Spec. Conf., San Diego, pp. 1385.Google Scholar
  25. Den Boer, W.D., and Van Strijp, R.M., (1982), Proc. 1982 Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., Stresa.Google Scholar
  26. Dersch, H., Stuke, J., and Beichler, J., (1981), Appl. Phys. Lett., 38 456.Google Scholar
  27. Dresner, T., Goldstein, B., and Szostak, D., (1981), Appl. Phys., Lett., 38 998.Google Scholar
  28. Emeleus, H.J., and Stewart, K., (1936), Trans. Faraday Society; 32, 1577.Google Scholar
  29. Eser, E., (1986), J. Appl. Phys., 59, 3508.Google Scholar
  30. Fan, J.C.C., and Palm, B.J., (1983), Solar Cells, 10, 81.Google Scholar
  31. Fortman, C.M., Fajan, K., and Lange, S., (1986), Proc. of Seventh E.C. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Sevilla, Spain, pp. 435.Google Scholar
  32. Fortman, C.M., Lange, S., and O’Dowd, J., (1987), Proc. 19th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., New Orleans, 3C - 1.Google Scholar
  33. Fukuda, N., (20, Apr. 1984 ), Proc. 1983 Annual Amorphous Silicon Contractor Mtg., Sunshine Project.Google Scholar
  34. Fujimoto, K., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1984), Solar Cells, pp. 357.Google Scholar
  35. Gay, C.F., and Mitchell, K.W., (1987), MRS Spring Meeting, Anaheim, C.A.Google Scholar
  36. Gay, R.R., Morel, D.L., Tanner, D.P., Kanani, D., and Ullal, H.S., (May, 1982 ), Proc. 4th EC Photovol. Solar Energy Conf., Stressa, pp. 714.Google Scholar
  37. Green, M.A., Wenham, S.R., and Blackers, A.W., (1987), Proc. 19th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., ( New Orleans ) 1p–1.Google Scholar
  38. Guha, S., (1984), J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 77–78, 1451.Google Scholar
  39. Guha, S., den Boer, W., Agarwal, S.C., and Hack, M., (1985), Appl. Phys. Lett., 47, 947.Google Scholar
  40. Hack, M., and Shur, M.S., (1984), J. Appl. Phys., 4413.Google Scholar
  41. Hamakawa, Y., (1987), Amorphous Silicon As a New Electronic Material, ECS Fall Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, 594.Google Scholar
  42. Hamakawa, Y., (1986), Proc. PVSEC-II, Beijing, pp. 347.Google Scholar
  43. Hamakawa, Y., (1982), in Amorphous Semiconductor Technologies and Devices, JARECT Series, Y. Hamakawa, ed., North-Holland Physics, Tokyo and Amsterdam, 2, Chap. 4. 1, 134.Google Scholar
  44. Hamakawa, Y., (1986), Extended abstracts of Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference-II, Beijing.Google Scholar
  45. Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Photovoltaic Materials and Processing, ECS San Francisco Meeting 280.Google Scholar
  46. Hamakawa, Y., (1985), J. IECE, Japan, 68 109.Google Scholar
  47. Hamakawa, Y., (1983), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 59–60, 1265.Google Scholar
  48. Hamakawa, Y., (1982), Amorphous Semiconductor Technologies and Devices, JARECT Series, Y. Hamakawa, ed., OHM North-Holland, Tokyo, Amsterdam, pp. 134.Google Scholar
  49. Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Jpn. J. Appi. Phys. 22, 527.Google Scholar
  50. Hamakawa, Y., (1986), MRS’85 Spring Meeting, (Palo Alto), F-ll.Google Scholar
  51. Hamakawa, Y., (1986), Proc. JSPS No. 147 Committee Meeting 1.Google Scholar
  52. Hamakawa, Y., (1987), Proc. 3rd Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conf., Tokyo, PL-II-1.Google Scholar
  53. Hamakawa, Y., (1983), (OHM-North-Holland), 6, Chap. 4. 1.Google Scholar
  54. Hamakawa, Y., (1982), Solar Energy Mater., 8 101.Google Scholar
  55. Hamakawa, Y., (1979), Surface Sci., 86, 444.Google Scholar
  56. Hamakawa, Y., Hattori, K., Abe, K., and Okamoto, H., (1987), AIP Conf. Proc., 157, 95.Google Scholar
  57. Hamakawa, Y., Okamoto, H., and Nitta, Y., (1982), Proc. 14th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., San Diego, 1074.Google Scholar
  58. Hamakawa, Y., Okamoto, H., and Nitta, Y., (1979), Appi. Phys. Lett. 35, 15.Google Scholar
  59. Hamakawa, Y., Okuda, K., Takakura, H., and Okamoto, H., (1984), Proc. 17th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., Florida, 1386.Google Scholar
  60. Hamakawa, Y., Takakura, H., and Okamoto, H., (1985), Proc. 18th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., Las Vegas, 813.Google Scholar
  61. Hamakawa, Y. and Tawada, Y., (1982), Int. J. Sol. Energy, 1, 1421.Google Scholar
  62. Hamakawa, Y., Tawada, Y., Nishimura, K., Tsuge, K., Kondo, M., Fujumoto, K., Nonomura, S., and Okamoto, H.: Proc. 16th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., San Diego, 245.Google Scholar
  63. Hamakawa, Y., Tawada, Y., Nishumura, K., Tsuge, K., Konda, M., Fujumoto, K., Nonomura, S., and Okamoto, H., (1982), Proc. 16th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., San Diego, 679.Google Scholar
  64. Hamasaki, T., Ueda, M., Chayahara, A., Hirose, M., and Osaka, Y., (1984), Appi. Phys. Lett., 44, 600.Google Scholar
  65. Han, D., and Fritzsche, H., (1983), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 59–60, 397.Google Scholar
  66. Hattori, Y., Kruangam, D., Katoh, K., Nitta, Y., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1987), Proc. 19th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., New Orleans, 689.Google Scholar
  67. Hattori, K., Mori, K., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1987), Appl. Phys. Lett., 51, 1259.Google Scholar
  68. Hattori, K., Okamot, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1987), Philos. Mag., B57, 13.Google Scholar
  69. Hotta, S., Nishimoto, N., Tawada, Y., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1982), J. Appl. Phys., 21, 289.Google Scholar
  70. Hotta, S., Tawada, Y., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1981), J. de Physique, 43, Sup. 10 C-4, 631.Google Scholar
  71. Ishihara, I., Terazono, S., Sasaki, H., Kawabata, K., Itagaki, T., Morikawa, H., Deguchi, M., Usui, M., Aiga, M., Otsubo, M., and Fujikawa, K., (1987), Extended abstracts of PVSEC-III, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  72. Ishibitsu, K., Nitta, Y., and Kimura, K., J.P.S. Spring Meeting (1984).Google Scholar
  73. Jackson, W.B. and Amer, N.M., (1982), Phys. Rev., B25, 5559.Google Scholar
  74. Kakalios, J., Street, R.A., and Jackson, W.B., (1987), Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 1037.Google Scholar
  75. Kashima, Y., Kida, H., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 59–60, 755.Google Scholar
  76. Kashima,Y., Nonomura, S., Kida, H., Fukumoto, K., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 59–60, 755.Google Scholar
  77. Kashima, Y., Nonomura, S., Kida, H., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Proc. 5th EC Photovol. Solar Energy Conf., Athens, 793.Google Scholar
  78. Kida, H., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1986), J. Appl. Phys., 59, 4079.Google Scholar
  79. Kida, H., Yamagishi, T., Kamada, T., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1984), Tech. Dig. Int. Photovoltaic Sci. & Eng. Conf., Kobe, 417.Google Scholar
  80. Kiss, Z.J., (1986), 6th New Energy Industrial Symposium, Tokyo, 29.Google Scholar
  81. Knights, J.C., (1976), Structure and Excitations of Amorphous Solids, G. Lucovsky and F. Galeener, eds.; (1976), A.I.P. conf. Proc. No. 31, N.Y., 296; Phil. Mag. 34, 663.Google Scholar
  82. Komuro, S., Aoyagi, Y., Segawa, Y., Namba, S., Masuyama, A., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 807.Google Scholar
  83. Konagai, M., and Takahashi, K., (1985), Proc. 1985 SERI Workshop.Google Scholar
  84. Konagai, M., Takei, H., Kim, W.Y., and Takahashi, K., (1986), Proc. PVSEC-II, Beijing, 437.Google Scholar
  85. Kruhler, W., Moller, M., Pileiderer, H., Plattner, R., and Rauscher, B., (1982), Proc. 4th E.C. Photovol. Sol. Energy Conf., Stresa, 754.Google Scholar
  86. Kuwano, Y., Imai, T., Ohmishi, M., and Nakano, S., (1980), Proc. 14th IEEE PV Specialists Conf., 1408.Google Scholar
  87. Kuwano, Y., Ohnishi, H., Tsuda, S., and Nakamura, Y., (1982), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 21, 413.Google Scholar
  88. LeComber, P.G., and Spear, W.E., (1986), Philos. Mag. B53, LI and references herein.Google Scholar
  89. Madan, A., LeComber, P.G., and Spear, W.E., (1976), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 20, 239.Google Scholar
  90. Marukawa, S., (1987), Proc. New Energy Symposium, organized by MITT Osaka Branch, (March, 1987) 3 (in Japanese) and NEDO a-Si Solar Cell Technology Committee Report, NEF (March, 1987 ), 7.Google Scholar
  91. Matsuda, A., Kaga, T., Tanaka, H., Malhotra, L., and Tanaka, K., (1980), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys, 22, L115.Google Scholar
  92. Matsuda, A., Nakagawa, K., Tanaka, K., Matsumura, M., Yamasaki, S., Okushi, H., and Iijima, S., (1980), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 35–36, 183.Google Scholar
  93. Matsumura, H., and Furukawa, S., (1982), Amorphous Semiconductor Technologies and Devices, JARECT, Y. Hamakawa, ed., OHM North-Holland, Tokyo, Amsterdam, 2.Google Scholar
  94. Moddel, G., Anderson, D., and Paul, W., (1980), Phys. Rev., B22, 1918.Google Scholar
  95. Moore, A.R., (1983), J. Appl. Phys/ 54, 222.Google Scholar
  96. Morel, D., (1987), Extended abstract of 172nd ECS Fall Meeting, Honolulu, 595.Google Scholar
  97. Morel, D.L., (1985), Proc. 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Las Vegas Nevada, 876.Google Scholar
  98. Morel, D.L., Mitchell, K., Wieting, R., Potter, R., Eberspacher, C., Tanner, D., and Fairchild, C., (1985), Proc. 18th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., Las Vegas, 876.Google Scholar
  99. Morigaki, K., (October, 1987 ), Technical Report of ISSP, University of Tokyo, No. 1858.Google Scholar
  100. Morimoto, T., (1983), Private communication, also reported by Y. Yukimoto, JARECT 6, Y. Hamakawa, ed., 237.Google Scholar
  101. Mort, J., and Grammatica, S., (1980), Solar Cells 2, 451.Google Scholar
  102. Mort, J., Chen, I., Troup, A., and Morgen, M., (1980), Phys. Rev. Lett., 45, 1348.Google Scholar
  103. Mort, J., Troup, A., Morgan, M., Grammatica, S., Knights, J.C., and Lujan, T., (1981), Appl. Phys. Lett., 38, 277.Google Scholar
  104. Mott, N.F., (1985), Philos. Mag., B51, 19.Google Scholar
  105. Mott, N.F., and Davis, E.A., (1979), Electronic Process in Non-Crystalline Materials, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  106. Muller, G., Muck, G., Simon, M., and Wintering, G., (1982), Proc. E.C. Photovoltaic Sol. Energy Conf. 4th, Stresa, Italy, 709.Google Scholar
  107. Nakamura, G., Sato, S., Kondo, H., Yukimoto, Y., and Shirahata, K., (1982), EC Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., Stresa, 616.Google Scholar
  108. Nakamura, N., Tsuda, S., Takahama, T., Nishikuni, M., Watanabe, K., Ohnishi, M., and Kuwano, Y., (1984), AIP Conf. Proc., 120, 303.Google Scholar
  109. Nakamura, N., Watanabe, K., Nishikuni, M., Hishikawa, Y., Tsuda, S., Nishiwaki, H., Ohnishi, M., and Kuwano, Y., (1983), Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 59–60, 1139.Google Scholar
  110. Nakamura, Y. and Yukimoto, Y., (1985), Abstract of SERI/DOE Amorphous Silicon Subcontractors Annual Review Meeting, 140.Google Scholar
  111. Nakano, S., Tarui, H., Haku, H., Nishiwaki, H., Tsuda, S., and Kuwano, Y., (1987), Proc. 19th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf. (New Orleans) 9E–4.Google Scholar
  112. Nakano, S., Tarui, H., Tsuda, S., and Kuwano, Y., (1987), Proc. 19th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., ( New Orleans ) 9E - 1.Google Scholar
  113. Nath, P., and Izu, M., (1985), Proc. 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Las Vegas, 939.Google Scholar
  114. National PV Program, Five Year Research Plan (1987-1991), US DOE/ CH10093–7 (1987) 30.Google Scholar
  115. Nishihata, K., Komori, K., Konagai, M., and Takahashi, K., (1981), Jpn. J. Appi. Phys., 20, supp. 2, 151.Google Scholar
  116. Nitta, Y., Abe, K., Hattori, K., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1987), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 97–98, 695.Google Scholar
  117. Nitta, Y., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1980), Jpn. Appi. Phys. 19, Suppl. 19 - 2, 143.Google Scholar
  118. Nonomura, S., Okamoto, H., Fukumoto, K., Kashima, Y., and Hamakawa, Y., (1984), Solar Cells, 11, 97.Google Scholar
  119. Nonomura, S., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Appi. Phys., A32, 4924.Google Scholar
  120. Nonomura, S., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Jpn. J. Appi. Phys. 21 - 1, 517.Google Scholar
  121. Noolandi, J., (1977), Phys. Rev., 16, 4466.Google Scholar
  122. Oda, S., Saito, Y., and Shimizu, I., (1981), Philos. Mag., B43, 1079.Google Scholar
  123. Ohnishi, M., Nishiwaki, H., Nakashima, Y., Tsuda, S., Futatsu, T., and Kuwano, Y., (1982), Proc. 3rd Photovoltaic Sci. Eng. Conf., Kyoto, Japan.Google Scholar
  124. Okamoto, H., (1984), in Amorphous Semiconductor Technologies and Devices, Y. Hamakawa, ed., OHM/North-Holland Physics Publ., Tokyo and Amsterdam, 16, 120.Google Scholar
  125. Okamoto, H., (1980), Ph.D. Thesis, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.Google Scholar
  126. Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1985), J. Non-Cryst. Solids., 77–78, 1441.Google Scholar
  127. Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1980), Rep. Spec. Res. Amorphous Mater. Minist. Educ. Jpn. 2, 196.Google Scholar
  128. Okamoto, H., Kida, H., Fukumoto, K., Nonomura, S., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 59–60, 1103.Google Scholar
  129. Okamoto, H., Kida, H., Nonomura, S., Fukumoto, K., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3236.Google Scholar
  130. Okamoto, H., Kida, H., Nonomura, S., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Solar Cells, 8, 317.Google Scholar
  131. Okamoto, H., Kida, H., Nonomura, S., and Hamakawa, Y., (1980), J. Phys., Orsay, Fr. 42, C4 - 507.Google Scholar
  132. Okamoto, H., Kida, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1985), Philos. Mag., B52, 1115.Google Scholar
  133. Okamoto, H., Nitta, Y., Adachi, T., and Hamakawa, Y., (1979), Surface Sci., 86, 486.Google Scholar
  134. Okamoto, H., Nitta, Y., and Hamakawa, Y., (1980), Solar Energy Materials, 2, 313.Google Scholar
  135. Okamoto, H., Yamaguchi, T., and Hamakawa, Y., (1980), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 35–36, 313.Google Scholar
  136. Okamoto, H., Yamaguchi, T., and Hamakawa, Y., (1980), J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. Suppl. A, 1213.Google Scholar
  137. Okamoto, H., Yamaguchi, T., Nonomura, S., and Hamakawa, Y., (1981), J. Phys., 42, C4–507.Google Scholar
  138. Okaniwa, H., Asano, M., Nakatani, K., Yano, M., and Suzuki, K., (1982), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, Suppl. 21–2, 239.Google Scholar
  139. Okaniwa, H., Nakatani, K., and Ohuchi, I., (1984), Proc. 1983 Annual Amorphous Silicon Contractor Mtg., Sunshine Project, 20 April 1984.Google Scholar
  140. Okuda, K., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L605.Google Scholar
  141. Okushi, H., Asano, A., Mirakawa, M., Yamasaki, S., and Tanaka, K., (1983), Non-Cryst. Solids, 59-60, 393.Google Scholar
  142. Okushi, H., Itoh, M., Okuno, T., Hoshokawa, Y., Yamasaki, S., and Tanaka, K., (1984), AIP Conf. Proc., 120, 250.Google Scholar
  143. Okushi, H., and Tanaka, K., (1987), Philos. Mag., 55, 135.Google Scholar
  144. Onishi, M., Nishiwaki, H., Enomoto, K., Nakashima, Y., Tsuda, S., and Kuwano, Y., (1983), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 59–60, 1107.Google Scholar
  145. Orenstein, J., and Kastner, M., (1981), Phys. Rev. Lett. 46d, 1421.Google Scholar
  146. Osawa, M., Haina, T., Akasaka, T., Ishikawa, Sakai, H., Ichikawa, H., and Uchida, Y., (1985), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 24, L838.Google Scholar
  147. Pai, D.M., and Enck, R.C., (1975), Phys. Rev. 11, 5163.Google Scholar
  148. Pankove, J.L., and Berkeyheiser, J.E., (1980), Appl. Phys. Lett., 37 705.Google Scholar
  149. Pantelides, S.T., (1987), Phys. Rev. Lett., 57, 2979 and 58, 1344.Google Scholar
  150. Paul, W., Lewis, A.J., Connell, G.A.N., and Moustakes, T.D., (1976), Solid State Comm., 969; Connnell, G.A.N, and Pawlik, J.R., (1976), Phys. Rev. B13, 787.Google Scholar
  151. Plattner, P.D., Pfeiderer, H., Rauscher, B., Y., (1981), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, suppl. 20–2, 195.Google Scholar
  152. Proc. 19th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., New Orleans, (1987).Google Scholar
  153. Proc. 7th EC-Solar Photovoltaic Conf., (1986) Sevilla, S-2 and S-3.Google Scholar
  154. Proc. 9th Intern. Conf. Amorphous and Liquid Semicond., Grenoble, 1981.Google Scholar
  155. Proc. of AIP Conference on Stability of Amorphous Silicon Arroy Materials and Devices, (1987), No. 157, Palo Alto.Google Scholar
  156. Redfield, D., (1986), Appl. Phys. Lett., 48, 846.Google Scholar
  157. Shimada, J., (1984), Proc. 1983 Annual Amorphous Silicon Contractor Mtg., Sunshine Project, 20 April 1984.Google Scholar
  158. Shirafuji, J., Matsui, H., Inuishi, Y., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 775.Google Scholar
  159. Shur, M., Czubatyj, W., and Madan, A., (1983), J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 731.Google Scholar
  160. Smith, Z.E., and Wagner, S., (1987), Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 688.Google Scholar
  161. Spear, W.E., (1983), J. Non-Cryst. Solids., 59201360, 1.Google Scholar
  162. Spear, W.E., and LeComber, P.G., (1985), Philos. Mag., B52, 247.Google Scholar
  163. Spear, W.E., and LeComber, P.G., (1976), Philos. Mag., 33, 935.Google Scholar
  164. Spear, W.E., and LeComber, P.G., (1975), Solid State Comm. 17, 1193.Google Scholar
  165. Staebler, D.L., (1980), J. Non-Cryt. Solids, 35–36, 387.Google Scholar
  166. Staebler, D.L., Crandall, S., and Williams, R., (1981), Appl. Phys. Lett., 39, 733.Google Scholar
  167. Staebler, D.L., and Wronski, C.R., (1980), J. Appl. Phys., 51, 3262.Google Scholar
  168. Staebler, D. L., and Wronski, C.R., (1977), Appl. Phys. Lett., 31, 292.Google Scholar
  169. Steemers, H., Spear, W.E., and LeComber, P.G., (1983), Philos. Mag., B47, L83.Google Scholar
  170. Steemer, H., Speax, W.E., and LeComber, P.G. (1983), Philos. Mag., B47, L83; and (1984) B48, L49.Google Scholar
  171. Sterling, H.F., and Swann, (1965), Solid State Electronics, 8, 653.Google Scholar
  172. Street, R.A., (1983), Appl. Phys. Lett., 42 507.Google Scholar
  173. Street, R.A., (1982), App. Phys. Lett., 41, 1060.Google Scholar
  174. Street, R.A., (1983), Phys. Rev., 27, 4924.Google Scholar
  175. Street, R.A., (1982), Phys. Rev. Lett., 49, 1187.Google Scholar
  176. Street, R.A., and Biegelesen, D.K., (1984), in Topics in Applied Physics, — The Physics of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon II, J.D. Joannopoulos and G. Lucovsky, eds., Springer-Verlag, 56, Chap. 5, 195; 256.Google Scholar
  177. Street, R.A., Kakalios, J., Tsai, C.C., and Hayes, T.M., (1987), Phys. Rev., B35, 1316.Google Scholar
  178. Street, R. A., and Mott, N.F., (1975), Phys. Rev. Lett., 35, 953.Google Scholar
  179. Street, R.A., (1984), Philos. Mag., B49, L15.Google Scholar
  180. Stutzmann, M., (1985), Appl. Phys. Lett., 47, 21.Google Scholar
  181. Stutzmann, M., (1987), Philos. Mag., 63.Google Scholar
  182. Stutzmann, M., Jackson, W.B., Smith, A.J., and Thompson, R., (1986), Appl. Phys. Lett., 48, 62.Google Scholar
  183. Stutzmann, M., Jackson, W.B., and Tsai, C.C., (1984), Appl. Phys. Lett., 45, 1075.Google Scholar
  184. Stutzmann, M., Jackson, W.B., and Tsai, C.C., (1985), Phys. Rev. B32, 32.Google Scholar
  185. Tanaka, K., Okushi, H., and Yamasaki, (1985), Tetrahedrally Bonded Amorphous Semiconductors, D. Adler and H. Fritzsche, eds., Plenum Press, 239.Google Scholar
  186. Tanielian, M.H., Goodman, N.B., and Fritzsche, H., (1981), J. Phys. Colloq. Orsay, Fr., 42 C4–375.Google Scholar
  187. Taniguchi, M., Hirose, M., Hamasaki, T., and Osaka, Y., (1980), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 35–36, 189.Google Scholar
  188. Tawada, Y., (1985), Abstracts of SERI/DOE Amorphous Silicon Subcontrac-tors Annual Review Meeting, 185.Google Scholar
  189. Tawada, Y., Nishimura, K., Nonomura, S., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1983), Solar Cells, 9, 53.Google Scholar
  190. Tawada, T., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1982), J. Appl. Phys., 53, 5273.Google Scholar
  191. Tawada, T., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1981), Appl. Phys. Lett., 39, 237.Google Scholar
  192. Tawada, Y., Tsuge, K., Yamagishi, H., Hiroe, A., and Yamaguchi, M., (1987), Extended Abstracts of Fall Meeting of the Electrochem. Soc., Honolulu, Hawaii, Abstract No. 607, 854.Google Scholar
  193. Tawada, T., Yamaguchi, T., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1981), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, Suppl. 20-2, 219.Google Scholar
  194. Teal, G., (1982), History of Single Crystal Growth of Transistor Invention, IEEE Trans. ED, 23, No. 7, 621.Google Scholar
  195. Tiedje, T., (1984), in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, part C, J.I. Pankove, ed., Academic Press, Inc., 21, Chap. 6, 207; 236.Google Scholar
  196. Tiedje, T., Cebulka, J.M., Morel, D.L., and Abels, B., (1981), Phys. Rev. Lett., 46, 1425.Google Scholar
  197. Tiedje, T., and Rose, A., (1981), Solid State Comm. 37, 42.Google Scholar
  198. Tiedje, T., Wronski, C.R., Abeles, B., and Cebulka, J.M., (1980), Sol. Cells 2, 301.Google Scholar
  199. Tsai, C.C., Stutzmann, M., and Jackson, W.B., (1984), AIP Conf. Proc., 120, 303.Google Scholar
  200. Tsai, C.C., et al., (1977), Proc. of 12th Int. Conf. on Amorphous and Liquid Semiconductors, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  201. Tsuda, S., Nakano, S., and Kuwano, Y., (1987), Proc. 12th ICALS, Prague.Google Scholar
  202. Tsuda, S., Nakamura, N., Makashima, Y., Tarui, H., Nishiwaki, H., Ohnishi, M., and Kuwano, Y., (1982), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, Suppl. 21–2, 251.Google Scholar
  203. Tsutsumi, Y., Abe, K., Nitta, Y., Okamoto, H., and Hamakawa, Y., (1987), J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 97 and 98, 1063.Google Scholar
  204. Uchida, Y., and Haruki, H., (1983), 3rd New Energy Industrial symposium, NEF, Session 2A - 3, 24.Google Scholar
  205. Uchida, Y., Nishiura, M., Sakai, H., and Haruki, H., (1983), Solar Cells, 9, 3.Google Scholar
  206. Wallace, W., Sabisky, E., Stafford, B., and Luft, W., (1987), Proc. 19th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., New Orleans, 8AF-7.Google Scholar
  207. Watts, R.L., and Smith, S., (1986-87), Photovoltaic Industry Progress from 1980 to Mid 1986 (August, 1986), and NEDO a-Si Solar Cell Technology Committee Report NEF (March, 1987 ) 145 (in Japaneses).Google Scholar
  208. Willett, D.R., Tanner, D.P., and McHenry, G., (1986), Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings, Editors by D. Adler, Y. Hamakawa and A. Madan, 70, 599.Google Scholar
  209. Yablonvich, E., and Cody, G.D., (1982), IEEE Trans ED, 29, 300.Google Scholar
  210. Yamasaki, S., (1987), Philos. Mag., B56, 79.Google Scholar
  211. Yamasaki, S., Kaneiwa, M., Kuroda, S., Okushi, H., and Tanaka, K., (1987), Phys. Rev., B35, 6471.Google Scholar
  212. Yamagishi, H., Kamada, T., Okamoto, H., and Hainakawa, Y., (1985), Appl. Phys. Lett., 47, 860.Google Scholar
  213. Yamagishi, H., Yamaguchi, M., Hiroe, A., Takada, J., Kondo, M., Tsuge, K., Mizukami, S., and Tawada, Y., (1987), Proc. AIP Conf. on Stability of Amorphous Silicon Alloy Materials and Devices, 157, 111.Google Scholar
  214. Yamaguchi, T., Okamoto, H., Nonomura, S., and Hamakawa, Y., (1981), Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, suppl. 20–2, 195.Google Scholar
  215. Yang, J., Glatfelter, T., Burdick, J., Fournier, J.P., Boman, L., Ross, R., and Mohr, R., (1986), Proc. 2nd Intern. Photovol. Sicence and Engineering Conf., Beijing, China, 361.Google Scholar
  216. Yang, J., Glatfelter, T., and Burdick, J., (1986), Extended abstract of PVSEC-II Beijing, 361.Google Scholar
  217. Yang, J., Rose, R., Mohr, R., and Fournier, J.P., (1986), MRS Symposium Proc., 70, 475.Google Scholar
  218. JARECT Vol. 16, Amorphous Semiconductor Technologies and Devices ed. by Y. Hamakawa, OHM North-Holland, Tokyo, Amsterdam, 1985.Google Scholar
  219. Yukimoto, Y. (1983); Hydrogenated α-SiGe alloy and its optoelectronic Properties, JARECT 6, Y. Hamakawa, ed., 135.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiro Hamakawa
  • Hiroaki Okamoto

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations