Subsurface Defects in Silicon Investigated by Modulated Optical Reflectance Measurements
The investigation of defects in silicon by modulated optical reflectance measurements has proven to be a powerful and easy-to-use method of nondestructive materials characterization. This technique has been used to monitor ion implant dose  and measure polishing damage  in silicon wafers, and to map O2 swirl precipitates in Czochralski-grown silicon . Laser-induced modulated reflectance offers advantages over some related thermal-wave techniques: it is contactless, and because it can be performed at modulation frequencies of several MHz, it offers micron-scale resolution. Its noncontact and nondestructive nature makes this technique attractive for production-line use in the semiconductor industry.
KeywordsPhosphorus Arsenic Boron Milling HeNe
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