Subsurface Defects in Silicon Investigated by Modulated Optical Reflectance Measurements

  • Jeff Bailey
  • Eicke Weber
  • Jon Opsal


The investigation of defects in silicon by modulated optical reflectance measurements has proven to be a powerful and easy-to-use method of nondestructive materials characterization. This technique has been used to monitor ion implant dose [1] and measure polishing damage [2] in silicon wafers, and to map O2 swirl precipitates in Czochralski-grown silicon [3]. Laser-induced modulated reflectance offers advantages over some related thermal-wave techniques: it is contactless, and because it can be performed at modulation frequencies of several MHz, it offers micron-scale resolution. Its noncontact and nondestructive nature makes this technique attractive for production-line use in the semiconductor industry.


Transmission Electron Microscopy Image Amorphous Layer Transmission Electron Microscopy Sample Weak Beam Dark Field Weak Beam Dark Field Image 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeff Bailey
    • 1
  • Eicke Weber
    • 1
  • Jon Opsal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials ScienceUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Therma-Wave, Inc.FremontUSA

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