When viruses are passaged at high multiplicity, defective interfering (DI) particles are produced. von Magnus (1947, 1951a-c, 1952, 1954) first observed this phenomenon when he serially passaged undiluted influenza viruses in embryonated chicken eggs. He noted that although both the total amount of virus particles as assayed by hemagglutination units (HAU) and the amount of infectious particles as assayed by egg infectivity titer (EID50) decreased, the ratio of infectivity to total particles (EID50/HAU) decreased much more precipitously during the passages at high multiplicity of infection (MOI). Clearly, during the undiluted passages, many particles were produced that were noninfectious. Subsequently, this phenomenon of multiplicity-dependent production of noninfectious virus particles has been reported with almost all animal viruses studied to date. Indeed, formation of such particles has also been observed for plant, yeast, and bacterial viruses (Kane et al., 1979; Mills et al., 1967) and probably represents a general phenomenon for all viruses. Later these noninfectious particles were called defective interfering (DI) particles in order to describe their proper phenotypic characteristics (Huang and Baltimore, 1970).
- Influenza Virus
- Polymerase Gene
- Sendai Virus
- Virus Preparation
- Polymerase Complex
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
chicken embryo fibroblast cells
defective interfering unit
- EID50 :
egg infectious dose (50%)
Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells
Madin-Darby canine kidney cells
multiplicity of infection
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
vesicular stomatitis virus
Ada, G. L., and Perry, B. T., 1955, Infectivity and nucleic acid content of influenza virus, Nature (Lond.) 175: 209–210.
Ada, G. L., and Perry, B. T., 1956, Influenza virus nucleic acid: Relationship between biological characteristics of the virus particle and properties of the nucleic acid, J. Gen. Microbiol. 14:623–633.
Akkina, R. K., and Nayak, D. P., 1987, Interference by defective interfering influenza virus: Role of defective viral polypeptides in infected cells, in: The Biology of Negative Strand Viruses ( B. W. J. Mahy and D. Kolakofsky, eds.), pp. 183–190, Elsevier, New York.
Akkina, R. K., Chambers, T. M., and Nayak, D. P., 1984a, Expression of defective-interfering influenza virus-specific transcripts and polypeptides in infected cells, J. Virol. 51: 395–403.
Akkina, R. K., Chambers, T. M., and Nayak, D. P., 1984b, Mechanism of interference by defective-interfering particles of influenza virus: Differential reduction of intracellular synthesis of specific polymerase proteins, Virus Res. 1: 687–702.
Akkina, R. K., Chambers, T. M., Londo, D. R., and Nayak, D. P., 1987, Intracellular localiza-tion of cells expressing PB1 protein from cloned cDNA, J. Virol. 61:2217–2224.
Amesse, L. S., Pridgen, C. L., and Kingsbury, D. W., 1982, Sendai virus DI RNA species with conserved virus genome termini and extensive internal deletions, Virology 118:17–27.
Bark, R. S., Stohlman, S. A., Razavi, M. K., and Lai, M. M. C., 1985; Characterization of leader-related small RNAs in corona virus-infected cells: Further evidence of leaderprimed mechanism of transcription, Virus Res. 3: 19–33.
Barrett, A. D. T., and Dimmock, N. J., 1986, Defective interfering viruses and infections of animals, Gurr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 128: 55–84.
Bay, P. H. S., and Reichmann, M. E., 1982, In vitro and in vivo inhibition of primary transcription of vesicular stomatitis virus by a defective interfering particle, J. Virol. 41: 172–182.
Bean, W. J., and Simpson, R. W., 1976, Transcriptase activity and genome composition of defective influenza virus, J. Virol. 18: 365–369.
Bean, W. J., Kawaoka, Y., Wood, J. M., Pearson, J. E., and Webster, R. G., 1985, Characterization of virulent and avirulent A/chicken/Pennsylvania/83 influenza A viruses: Potential role of defective interfering RNAs in nature, J. Virol. 54:151–160.
Bellett, A. J. D., and Cooper, P. D., 1959, Some properties of the transmissible interfering component of vesicular stomatitis virus preparations, J. Gen. Microbiol. 21: 498–509.
Blumberg, B. M., and Kolakofsky, D., 1983, An analytical review of defective infections of vesicular stomatitis virus, J. Gen. Virol. 64: 1839–1847.
Buonagurio, D. A., Krystal, M:, Palese, P., DeBorde, D. C., and Maassab, H. F., 1984, Analysis of an influenza A virus mutant with a deletion in the NS segment, J. Virol. 49: 418–425.
Cairns, H. J. F., and Edney, M., 1952, Quantitative aspects of influenza virus multiplication. I. Production of incomplete virus, J. Immunol. 69: 155–160.
Cane, C., McLain, L., and Dimmock, N. J., 1987, Intracellular stability of the interfering activity of a defective interfering influenza virus in the absence of virus multiplication. Virol. 159: 259–264.
Carter, M. J., and Mahy, B. W. J., 1982a, Incomplete avian influenza virus contains a defective noninterfering component, Arch. Virol. 71: 12–25.
Carter, M. J., and Mahy, B. W. J., 1982b, Incomplete avian influenza A virus displays anomalous interference, Arch. Virol. 74: 71–76.
Carter, M. J., and Mahy, B. W. J., 1982c, Synthesis of RNA segments 1–3 during generation of incomplete influenza A (fowl plague) virus, Arch. Virol. 73: 109–119.
Cave, D. R., Hendrickson, F. M., and Huang, A. S., 1985, Defective interfering virus particles modulate virulence, J. Virol. 55: 366–373.
Chambers, T. M., Akkina, R. K., and Nayak, D. P., 1984, In vivo transcription and translation of defective interfering particle-specific RNAs of influenza virus, in: Segmented Negative Strand Viruses (R. W. Compans and D. H. L. Bishop, eds.) pp. 85–91, Academic, Orlando, Florida.
Chambers, T. M., and Webster, R. G., 1987, Defective interfering virus associated with A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/83 influenza virus, J. Virol. 61: 1517–1523.
Chanda, P. K., Chambers, T. M., and Nayak, D. P., 1983, In vitro transcription of defective interfering particles of influenza virus produces poly(A) containing complementary RNAs, J. Virol. 45: 55–61.
Choppin, P. W., and Pons, M. W., 1970, The RNAs of infective and incomplete influenza virions grown in MDBK and HeLa cells, Virology 42: 603–610.
Chow, N., and Simpson, R. W., 1971, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity associated with virions and subviral particles of myxoviruses, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68: 752–756.
Crumpton, W. M., Dimmock, N. J., Minor, P. D., and Avery, R. J., 1978, The RNAs of defective interfering influenza virus, Virology 90: 370–373.
Crumpton, W. M., Clewley, J. P., Dimmock, N. J., and Avery, R. J., 1979, Origin of subgenomic RNAs in defective interfering influenza virus, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 6: 431–434.
Crumpton, W. M., Avery, R. J., and Dimmock, N. J., 1981, Influence of the host cell on the genomic and subgenomic RNA content of defective interfering influenza virus, J. Gen. Virol. 53: 173–177.
Davis, A. R., and Nayak, D. P., 1979, Sequence relationships among defective interfering influenza viral RNAs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 3092–3096.
Davis, A. R., Hiti, A. L., and Nayak, D. P., 1980, Influenza defective interfering viral RNA is formed by internal deletion of genomic RNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 215–219.
De, B. K., and Nayak, D. P., 1980, Defective interfering influenza viruses and host cells: Establishment and maintenance of persistent influenza virus infection in MDBK and HeLa cells, J. Virol. 36: 847–859.
Detjen, B. M., St. Angelo, C., Katze, M. G., and Krug, R. M., 1987, The three influenza viral polymerase (P) proteins not associated with viral nucleocapsids in the infected cells are in the form of a complex, J. Virol. 61: 16–22.
Dimmock, N. J., Beck, S., and McLain, L., 1986, Protection of mice from lethal influenza: Evidence that defective interfering virus modulates immune response and not virus multiplication, J. Gen. Virol. 67: 839–850.
Doyle, M., and Holland, J. J., 1973, Prophylaxis and immunization in mice by use of virus-free defective T particles to protect against intracerebral infection by vesicular stomatitis virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 2105–2108.
Duesberg, P. H., 1968, The RNAs of influenza virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59: 930–937.
Etkind, P. R., Buchhagen, D. L., Herz, C., Broni, B. B., and Krug, R. M., 1977, The segments of influenza viral mRNA, J. Virol. 22: 346–352.
Fazekas de St. Groth, S., and Graham, D. M., 1954a, The production of incomplete virus particles among influenza strains. Experiments in eggs, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 35: 60–74.
Fazekas de St. Groth, S., and Graham, D. M., 1954b, Artificial production of incomplete influenza virus, Nature (Lond.) 173: 637–638.
Fields, S., and Winter, G., 1982, Nucleotide sequences of influenza virus segments 1 and 3 reveal mosaic structure of a small viral RNA segment, Cell 28: 303–313.
Frielle, D. W., Huang, D. D., and Youngner, J. S., 1984, Persistent infection with influenza A virus: Evolution of virus mutants, Virology 138: 103–117.
Gamboa, E. T., Harter, D. H., Daffy, P. E., and Hsu, K. C., 1975, Murine influenza virus encephalomyelitis. III. Effect of defective interfering particles, Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 34: 157–169.
Gard, S., and von Magnus, P., 1947, Studies on interference in experimental influenza. II. Purification and centrifugation experiments, Arkiv. Kemi, Mineral Och Geol. 24b No. 8, 1–4.
Gard, S., von Magnus, P., Svedmyr, A., and Birch-Andersen, A., 1952, Studies on the sedimentation of influenza virus, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 4: 591–611.
Ginsberg, H. S., 1954, Formation of non-infectious influenza virus in mouse lungs: Its dependence upon extensive pulmonary consolidation initiated by the viral inoculum, J. Exp. Med. 100: 581–603.
Henley, W., 1953, Multiplication of influenza virus in the entodermal cells of the allantois of chick embryo, Adv. Virus Res. 1: 141–227.
Herman, R. C., 1984, Nucleotide sequence of an aberrant glycoprotein mRNA synthesized by the internal deletion mutant of vesicular stomatitis virus, J. Virol. 50: 524–528.
Hinshaw, V. S., Bean, W. J., Webster, R. G., and Sriram, G., 1980, Genetic reassortment of influenza A viruses in the intestinal tract of ducks, Virology 102: 412–419.
Holland, J., Grabau, E. A., Jones, C. L., and Semler, B. L., 1979, Evolution of multiple genome mutations during long-term persistent infection by vesicular stomatitis virus. Cell 16: 495–504.
Holland, J. J., Kennedy, S. I. T., Semler, B. L., Jones, C. L., Roux, L., and Grabau, E. A., 1980, Defective interfering RNA viruses and the host cell response, in Comprehensive. Virology, ( H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), Vol. 16, pp. 137–192, Plenum, New York.
Holland, J., Spindler, K., Horodyski, F., Grabau, E., Nichol, S., and VandePol, S., 1982, Rapid evolution of RNA genomes, Science 215: 1577–1585.
Honda, A., Ueda, K., Nagata, K., and Ishihama, A., 1987, Identification of the RNA polymerase site on genome RNA of influenza virus. J. Biochem. 102: 1241–1249.
Horsfall, F. L., 1954, On the reproduction of influenza virus. Quantitative studies with procedures which enumerate infective and haemagglutinating virus particles, J. Exp. Med. 100: 135–161.
Horsfall, F. L., 1955, Reproduction of influenza viruses. Quantitative investigations with particle enumeration procedures on the dynamics of influenza A and B virus reproduction, J. Exp. Med. 102: 441–473.
Hsu, C-H, Re, G. G., Gupta, K. C., Portner, A., and Kingsbury, D. W., 1985, Expression of Sendai virus defective-interfering genomes with internal deletions, Virology 146: 38–49.
Hsu, M-T, Parvin, J. D., Gupta, S., Crystal, M., and Palese, P., 1987, Genomic RNAs of influenza viruses are held in a circular conformation in virions and in infected cells by a terminal panhandle, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 8140–8144.
Huang, A. S., 1975, Defective interfering viruses, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 27: 101–117.
Huang, A. S., 1977, Viral pathogenesis and molecular biology, Bacteriol. Rev. 41: 811–821.
Huang, A. S., 1982, Significance of sequence rearrangements in a rhabdovirus, ASM News 48: 148–151.
Huang, A. S., and Baltimore, D., 1970, Defective viral particles and viral disease processes, Nature (Lond.) 226: 325–327.
Huang, A. S., and Baltimore, D., 1977, Defective interfering animal viruses, in: Comprehensive Virology, ( H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R. R. Wagner, eds.), Vol. 10, pp 731–16, Plenum, New York.
Huang, A. S., Little, S. P., Oldstone, M. B. A., and Rao, D., 1978, Defective interfering particles: Their effect on gene expression and replication of vesicular stomatitis virus, in: Persistent Viruses. (J. G. Stevens, G. H. Todaro, and C. F. Fox, eds.), ICN—UCLA Symposium on Molecular and Cellular Biology, Vol VI, pp. 399–408, Academic, Orlando, Florida.
Janda, J. M., and Nayak, D. P., 1979, Defective influenza viral ribonucleoproteins cause interference, J. Virol. 32: 697–702.
Janda, J. M., Davis, A. R., Nayak, D. P., and De, B. K., 1979, Diversity and generation of defective interfering influenza virus particles, Virology 95: 48–58.
Jennings, P. A., Finch, J. T., Winter, G., and Robertson, J. S., 1983, Does the higher order structure of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein guide sequence rearrangements in influenza viral RNA?, Cell 34: 619–627.
Jones, I. M., Reay, P. A., and Philpott, K. L., 1986, Nuclear location of all three polymerase proteins and a nuclear signal in polymerase PB2, EMBO J. 5: 2371–2376.
Kane, W. P., Pietras, D. F., and Bruenn, J. A., 1979, Evolution of defective-interfering double stranded RNAs of yeast killer virus, J. Virol. 32: 692–696.
Kaptein, J., and Nayak, D. P., 1982, Complete nucleotide sequence of the polymerase 3 (P3) gene of human influenza virus A/WSN/33, J. Virol. 42: 55–63.
King, A M. Q., McCahon, D., Slade, W. R., and Newman, J. W. I., 1982, Recombination in RNA, Cell 29: 921–928.
Kingsbury, D. W., 1974, The molecular biology of paramyxoviruses, Med. Microbiol Immunol. 160: 73–83.
Kolakofsky, D., 1976, Isolation and characterization of Sendai virus DI RNAs, Cell 8: 547–555.
Lazzarini, R. A., Keene, J. D., and Schubert, M., 1981, The origin of defective interfering particles of the negative strand RNA viruses, Cell 26: 145–154.
Lenard, J., and Compans, R. W., 1975, Polypeptide composition of incomplete influenza virus grown in MDBK cells, Virology 65: 418–426.
Leppert, M., Rittenhouse, L., Perrault, J., Summers, D., and Kolakofsky, D., 1979, Plus and minus strand leader RNAs in negative strand virus-infected cells, Cell 18: 735–747.
Lief, F. S., Fabiyi, A., and Henle, W., 1956, The decreased incorporation of S antigen into elementary bodies of increasing incompleteness, Virology 2: 782–797.
Manire, G. P., 1957, Studies on the toxicity for mice of incomplete influenza virus, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 40: 501–510.
McCauley, J. W., and Mahy, B. W. J., 1983, Structure and function of the influenza virus genome, Biochem. J. 211: 281–294.
McLain, L., Armstrong, S. J., and Dimmock, N. J., 1988, One defective interfering particle per cell prevents influenza virus-mediated cytopathology: An efficient assay system, J. Gen. Virol. 69: 1415–1419.
McKee, A. P., 1951, Non-toxic influenza virus, J. Immunol. 66: 151–167.
Meier-Ewart, H., and Compans, R. W., 1974, Time course of synthesis and assembly of influenza virus proteins, J. Virol. 14: 1083–1091.
Meier, E., Harmison, G. G., Keene, J. D., and Schubert, M., 1984, Sites of copy choice replication involved in generation of vesicular stomatitis virus defective-interfering particle RNAs, J. Virol. 51: 515–521.
Mills, D. R., Peterson, R. I., and Spiegelman, S., 1967, An extracellular Darwinian experiment with a self-duplicating nucleic acid molecule, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 217–224.
Moss, B. A., and Brownlee, G. G., 1981, Sequence of DNA complementary to a small RNA segment of influenza virus A/NT/60/68, Nucleic Acids Res 9: 1941–1947.
Nakajima, K., Ueda, M., and Sugiura, A., 1979, Origin of small RNA in von Magnus particles of influenza virus, J. Virol. 29: 1142–1148.
Nayak, D. P., 1969, Influenza viruses: Structure, replication and defectiveness, Fed. Proc. 28: 1858–1865.
Nayak, D. P., 1972, Defective virus RNA synthesis and production of incomplete influenza virus in chick embryo cells, J. Gen. Virol. 14: 63–67.
Nayak, D. P., 1980, Defective interfering influenza viruses, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 34: 619–644.
Nayak, D. P., and Sivasubramanian, N., 1983, The structure of the influenza defective interfering (DI) RNAs and their progenitor genes, in: Genetics of Influenza Viruses, ( P. Palese and D. W. Kingsbury, eds.), pp. 255–279, Springer-Verlag, Vienna.
Nayak, D. P., Tobita, K., Janda, J. M., Davis, A. R., and De, B. K., 1978, Homologous interference mediated by defective interfering influenza virus derived from a temperature-sensitive mutant of influenza virus, J. Virol. 28: 375–386.
Nayak, D. P., Davis, A. R., and Cortini, R., 1982a, Defective interfering influenza viruses: Complete sequence analysis of a DI RNA, in: Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses, ( D. P. Nayak, ed.), pp. 77–92, Academic, Orlando, Florida.
Nayak, D. P., Sivasubramanian, N., Davis, A. R., Cortini, R., and Sung, J., 1982b, Complete sequence analyses show that two defective interfering influenza viral RNAs contain a single internal deletion of a polymerase gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 2216–2220.
Nayak, D. P., Chambers, T. M., and Akkina, R. K., 1985, Defective interfering RNAs of influenza viruses: Origin, structure, expression and interference, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Imm unol. 114: 104–151.
Penn, C. R., and Mahy, B. W. J., 1984, Expression of influenza virus subgenomic virion RNAs in infected cells, in: Segmented Negative Strand Viruses ( R. W. Compans and D. H. L. Bishop, eds.), pp. 173–178, Academic, Orlando, Florida.
Penn, C. R., and Mahy, B. W. J., 1985, Novel polypeptides encoded by influenza virus subgenomic (DI-type) virion RNAs, Virus Res. 3: 311–321.
Perrault, J., 1981, Origin and replication of defective interfering particles, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Im m un ol. 93: 151–207.
Perrault, J., Semler, B. W., Leavitt, R. W., and Holland, J. J., 1978, Inverted complementary terminal sequences in defective interfering particle RNAs of vesicular stomatitis virus and their possible role in autointerference, in: Negative Strand Viruses and the Host Cell ( B. W. J. Mahy and R. D. Barry, eds.), pp. 527–538, Academic, Orlando, Florida.
Perrault, J., Clinton, G. M., and McClure, M. A., 1983, RNP template of vesicular stomatitis virus regulates transcription and replication functions, Cell 35: 175–185.
Pons, M. W., 1980, The genome of incomplete influenza virus, Virology, 100: 43–52.
Pons, M., and Hirst, G. K., 1969, The single and double-stranded RNAs and the proteins of incomplete influenza virus, Virology 38: 68–72.
Rabinowitz, S. G., and Huprikar, J., 1979, Influence of defective-interfering particles of the PR8 strain of influenza A virus on the pathogenesis of pulmonary infection in mice, J. Infec. Dis. 140: 305–315.
Rao, D. D., and Huang, A. S., 1982, Interference among defective interfering particles of vesicular stomatitis virus, J. Virol. 41: 210–221.
Re, G. G., and Kingsbury, D. W., 1988, Paradoxical effect of Sendai virus DI RNA size on survival: Inefficient envelopment of small nucleocapsids, Virology 165: 331–337.
Re, G. G., Morgan, E. M., and Kingsbury, D. W., 1985, Nucleotide sequences responsible for generation of internally deleted Sendai virus defective interfering genomes, Virology 146: 27–37.
Robertson, J. S., Schubert, M., and Lazzarini, R. A., 1981, Polyadenylation sites for influenza virus mRNA, J. Virol. 38: 157–163.
Rott, R., and Schafer, W., 1960, Untersuchungen uber die hamagglutinierenden nichtinfektiosen Teilchen der Influenza-Viren. I. Die Erzeugung von “inkompletten Formen” beim Virus der klassischen Geflugelpest (v. Magnus-Phanomen), Z. Naturforsch. 15b: 691–693.
Rott, R., and Schafer, W., 1961, Untersuchungen uber die hamagglutinierenden nichtinfektiosen Teilchen der Influenza-Viren (German), Z. Naturforsch. 166: 310–321.
Rott, R., and Scholtissek, C., 1963, Investigations about the formation of incomplete forms of fowl plague virus, J. Gen. Microbiol. 33: 303–312.
Rott, R., Orlich, M., and Scholtissek, C., 1983, Pathogenicity reactivation of nonpathogenic influenza virus recombinants under von Magnus conditions, Virology 126: 459–465.
Rowlands, D., Grabau, E., Spindler, K., Jones, C., Semler, B., and Holland, J., 1980, Virus protein changes and RNA termini alterations evolving during persistent infection, Cell 19: 871–880.
Schafer, W., 1955, Sero-immunologic studies on incomplete forms of the virus of classical fowl plague, Arch. Exp. Vet. Med. 9: 218–230 [in German].
Schubert, M., Harmison, G. G., and Meier, E., 1984, Primary structure of vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase (L) gene: Evidence for a high frequency of mutations, J. Virol. 51: 505–514.
Shapiro, G. I., Gurney, T., and Krug, R. M., 1987, Influenza virus gene expression: Control mechanism at early and late times of infection and nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of virus-specific RNAs, J. Virol. 61: 764–773.
Sivasubramanian, N., and Nayak, D. P., 1982, Sequence analysis of the polymerase 1 gene and the secondary structure prediction of polymerase 1 protein of human influenza virus A/WSN/33, J. Virol. 44: 321–329.
Sivasubramanian, N., and Nayak, D. P., 1983, Defective interfering influenza RNAs of polymerase 3 gene contain single as well as multiple internal deletions, Virology 124: 232–237.
Smith, G. L., and Hay, A. J., 1982, Replication of the influenza virus genome, Virology 118: 96–108.
Smith, G. L., Levin, J. Z., Palese, P., and Moss, B., 1987, Synthesis and location of ten influenza virus polypeptides individually expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus, Virology 160: 336–345.
Sriram, G., Bean, W. J., Hinshaw, V. S., and Webster, R. G., 1980, Genetic diversity among avian influenza viruses, Virology 105: 592–599.
Ueda, M., Nakajima, K., and Sugiura, A., 1980, Extra RNAs of von Magnus particles of influenza virus cause reduction of particular polymerase genes, J. Virol. 34: 1–8.
von Magnus, P., 1947, Studies on interference in experimental influenza. I. Biological observations, Ark. Kemi. Mineral, Geol. 24b: 1.
von Magnus, P., 195la, Propagation of the PR8 strain of influenza virus in chick embryos. I. The influence of various experimental conditions on virus multiplication, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 28: 250–277.
von Magnus, P., 195lb, Propagation of the PR8 strain of influenza virus in chick embryos. II. The formation of “incomplete” virus following the inoculation of large doses of seed virus, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 28: 278–293.
von Magnus, P., 1951c, Propagation of the PR8 strain of influenza virus in chick embryos. III. Properties of the incomplete virus produced in serial passages of undiluted virus, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 29: 157–181.
von Magnus, P., 1952, Propagation of the PR8 strain of influenza virus in chick embryos. IV. Studies on the factors involved in the formation of incomplete virus upon serial passage of undiluted virus, Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 30: 311–335.
von Magnus, P., 1954, Incomplete forms of influenza virus, Adv. Virus Res. 2: 59–78.
von Magnus, P., 1965, The in ovo production of incomplete virus by B/Lee and A/PR8 influenza viruses, Arch. Ges. Virusforsch. 17: 414–424.
Webster, R. G., Kawaoka, Y., and Bean, W. J., Jr., 1986, Molecular changes in A/chicken/Pennsylvania/83 (H5N2) influenza virus associated with acquisition of virulence, Virology 149: 165–173.
Weiss, B., and Schlesinger, S., 1981, Defective interfering particles of Sindbis virus do not interfere with homologous virus obtained from persistently infected BHK cells but do interfere with Semliki Forest virus, J. Virol. 37: 840–844.
Welsh, R. M., Lampert, P. W., and Oldstone, M. B. A., 1977, Prevention of virus-induced cerebellar disease by defective interfering lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, J. Infect. Dis. 136: 391–399.
Werner, G. H., 1956, Quantitive studies on influenza virus infection of the chick embryo by the amniotic route, J. Bacteriol. 71: 505–515.
Winter, G., Fields, S., and Ratti, G., 1981, The structure of the two subgenomic RNAs from human influenza virus A/PR/8/34, Nucleic Acids Res. 9: 6907–6915.
Yang, F., and Lazzarini, R. A., 1983, Analysis of the recombination event generating a vesicular stomatitis virus deletion defective interfering particle, J. Virol. 45: 766–772.
Yoshishita, T., Kawai, K., Fukai, K., and Ito, R., 1959, Analysis of infective particles in incomplete virus preparations of the von Magnus type, Biken J. 2: 25.
Editors and Affiliations
© 1989 Plenum Press, New York
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Nayak, D.P., Chambers, T.M., Akkina, R.K. (1989). Structure of Defective-Interfering RNAs of Influenza Viruses and Their Role in Interference. In: Krug, R.M. (eds) The Influenza Viruses. The Viruses. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-0811-9_6
Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA
Print ISBN: 978-1-4612-8094-1
Online ISBN: 978-1-4613-0811-9
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive