Clinical Chemistry in Liver-Toxicity Testing: Differences between Species

  • J. P. Braun
  • M. Bonnefoi
  • V. Burgat
  • A. G. Rico

Abstract

Liver-toxicity testing is necessary for the development of all new drugs, as well for human as for veterinary uses. It must be performed in various animal species, mainly rodents but also primates, dogs and sometimes other domestical animals. The major criterion of liver toxicity remains microscopic pathologic examination, which unfortunately requires the sacrifice of a large number of small animals or repeated biopsies in larger ones. Thus alternative, mainly biochemical, methods were devised to investigate liver damages, liver cancerogenesis and liver metabolism alterations.

Keywords

Sorbitol Acetaminophen Biotransformation Tetrachloride Cholestasis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Zimmerman HJ. Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. Environ H1th Persp 1976; 15: 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Knox WE. Enzyme patterns in fetal, adult, and neoplastic rat tissues. Basel: Karger, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schmidt E, Schmidt FW. Enzyme activities in human liver. Enzym Biol Clin 1970; 11: 67–129.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Keller P. Enzymaktivitäten in Organen, Zellfraktionen und Körperflüssigkeiten des Hundes under spezielle Berücksichtigung klinisch-diagnostischer Aspekte. Schweiz Arch Tierheilk 1986; 128: 1–25.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boyd JW. The comparative activity of some enzymes in sheep, cattle and rats. Normal serum and tissue levels and changes during experimental liver necrosis. Res Vet Sci 1962; 3: 256–268.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Keller P. Serumenzyme beim Rind: Organanalysen und Normalwerte. Schweiz Arch Tierheilk 1971; 113: 615–626.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anwer MS, Engelking LR, Gronwall R, Klentz RD. Plasma bile acid elevation following CCl4 induced liver damage in dogs, sheep, calves and ponies. Res Vet Sci 1976; 20: 127–130.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Braun JP, Soula G, Rico AG, Bénard P, Burgat-Sacaze V. Gamma-glutamyl transferase et cancer. Ann Biol Clin 1981; 39: 53–59.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Braun JP, Rico A, Bénard P. Evolution de la distribution de la gammaglutamyl transferase dans les organes de la souris en fonction du développement. Paris: CR Acad Sci, 1978; 286: 1483–1485.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Braun JP, Rico A, Bénard P, Burgat V. Distribution of γ-glutamyl transferase in some domestic animals. In: Goldberg DM, Wilkinson JH. Enzymes in health and disease. Basel: Karger, 1978: 46–49.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bézille P, Braun JP, LeBars J. Première identification de l’eczéma facial chez les ovins en France. Aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et biologiques. Rec Méd Vét 1984; 12: 339–347.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guelfi JF, Braun JP, Bénard P, Rico AG, Thouvenot JP. Value of socalled cholestasis markers in the dog: an experimental study. Res Vet Sci 1982; 33: 309–312.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fiala S, Fiala AE, Dixon B. γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in transplantable, chemically induced rat hepatomas and “spontaneous” mouse hepatomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 1972; 48: 1393–1401.Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    Guelfi JF, Braun JP, Bénard P, Rico AG, Thouvenot JP. Value of socalled cholestasis markers in the dog: an experimental study. Res Vet Sci 1982; 33: 309–312.Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    Fiala S, Fiala AE, Dixon B. γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in transplantable, chemically induced rat hepatomas and “spontaneous” mouse hepatomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 1972; 48: 1393–1401.Google Scholar
  16. 14.
    Harada M, Okabe K, Shibata K, Masuda H, Miyata K, Enomoto M. Histochemical demonstration of increased activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in rat liver during hepatocarcinogenesis. Acta Histochem Cytochem 1976; 9: 168–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 15.
    Fiala S, Fiala ES. Activation by chemical carcinogens of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in rat and mouse liver. J Natl Cancer Inst 1973; 51: 151–158.Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    Savides MC, Oehme FW. Acetaminophen and its toxicity. J Appl Toxicol 1983; 3: 96–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 17.
    Dixon MF, Fulker MJ, Walker BE, Kelleher J, Losowsky MS. Serum transaminase levels after experimental paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Gut 1975; 16: 800–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 18.
    Adamson RH, Davies DS. Comparative aspects of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. In: Michelson MJ. Comparative Pharmacology. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1973: 851–938.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Braun
    • 1
  • M. Bonnefoi
    • 1
  • V. Burgat
    • 1
  • A. G. Rico
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire Associé INRA Toxicologie Biochimique et MétaboliqueENVToulouse CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations