Advertisement

Identifying Human Behavioral Teratogens

Designs and Methods
  • Ernest L. Abel

Abstract

Although over 800 agents have now been found to produce some form of teratogenicity in animals, only a few (30) are considered teratogenic in humans (Shepard, 1986) and none of these has been so identified solely on the basis of behavioral anomalies. Although behavioral damage, especially mental retardation, represents a far greater and more intractable problem than structural damage, behavioral teratogens per se are not included in any list of agents causing anomalies in humans. This is because immediate identification of anomalies is still society’s primary concern and “silent teratogens” do not make their influence felt until long after birth. Nevertheless, narcotics, marihuana, PCBs, and other compounds clearly warrant more than passing attention because of their behavioral teratogenicity. In terms of cost alone, care and treatment of people with behavioral dysfunctions due to prenatal CNS damage represents a far greater economic burden to society than caring for individuals with structural defects (e.g., Abel & Sokol, 1987).

Keywords

Mental Retardation Prenatal Exposure Brain Damage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Attention Deficit Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, E. L., and Sokol R. J. Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1987, 19, 51–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Accardo, P. J., and Capute, A. J. The Pediatrician and the Developmentally Delayed Child: A Clinical Textbook on Mental Retardation. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1979. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III). Washington, D.C., APA, 1980.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, V. E., Siegel, F. S., Fisch, R. O., and Wirt, R. D. Responses of Phenylketonurie children on a continuous performance test. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1969, 74, 358–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Apgar, V. A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia, 1983, 32, 260–267.Google Scholar
  5. Bayley, N. Manual for the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1969.Google Scholar
  6. Bayley, N. Development of mental abilities. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology. New York: J. W. Ley, 1970.Google Scholar
  7. Bierman-Van Eedenburg, M., Jurgens-Van Der Zee, A. D., and Olinga, A., Huisjes, H. H., and Touwen, B. C. Predictive value of neonatal neurological examination: A follow-up study at 18 months. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1981, 23, 296–305.Google Scholar
  8. Billing, L., Eriksson, M., Stineroth, G., and Zetterstrom, R. Pre-school children of amphetamine-addicted mothers. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 1985, 74, 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brazelton, T. B. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1973.Google Scholar
  10. Broman, S., Nichols, P., and Kennedy, W. A. Preschool I.Q.: Prenatal and Early Development Correlates. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1975.Google Scholar
  11. Chasnoff, I. J., Burns, W. J., Schnoll, S. H., and Burns, K. A. Cocaine use in pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine, 1985, 313, 666–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Church, M. W., and Gerkin, K. P. Hearing disorders in children with fetal alcohol syndrome: Findings from case reports. Pediatrics, 1988, 82, 147–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Coles, C. D., Smith, I., Fernhoff, P., and Falek, A. Neonatal neurobehavioral characteristics as correlates of maternal alcohol use during gestation. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1985, 9, 454–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Doyle, R. B., Anderson, R. P., and Halcomb, C. G. Attention deficits and the effects of visual distraction. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1976, 9, 48–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edmonds, L. D., Falk, H., and Nissim, J. E. Congenital malformations and vinyl chloride. Lancet, 1975, 2, 1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fagan, J. F., and McGrath S. K. Infant recognition memory and later intelligence. Intelligence, 1981, 5, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fagan, J. F., and Singer, L. T. Infant recognition memory as a measure of intelligence. Advances in Infancy Research, 1983, 2, 31–78.Google Scholar
  18. Fantz, R. L. Visual perception from birth as shown by pattern selectivity. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1965, 118, 793–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flint, E. F. Severe childhood deafness in Glasgow 1965–1979. Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 1983, 97, 421–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fried, P. A. Marihuana use by pregnant women: Neurobehavioral effects in neonates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1980, 6, 415–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fried, P. A. Marihuana use by pregnant women and effects on offspring: An update. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 1982, 4, 451–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Golden, N. L., Sokol, R. J., Kuhnert, B. R., and Bottoms, S. Maternal alcohol use and infant development. Pediatrics, 1982, 70, 931–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Grether, J. K. California case file on cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Journal of Perinatology, 1987, 8, 100–104.Google Scholar
  24. Grossman, H. J. (Ed.). Manual on Terminology and Classification in Mental Retardation. Washington, D.C.: American Association on Mental Deficiency, 1973.Google Scholar
  25. Gusella, J. L., and Fried, P. A. Effects of maternal social drinking and smoking on offspring at 13 months. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 1984, 6, 13–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hagberg, B., Hagberg, G., Lewerth, A., and Lindberg, U. Mild mental retardation in Swedish school children. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 1981, 70, 445–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hook, E. B. Incidence and prevalence a measures of the frequency of birth defects. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1982, 116, 743–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Jacobson, J. L., Jacobson, S. W., Fein, G. G., Schwartz, P. M., and Dowler, J. K. Prenatal exposure to an environmental toxin: A test of the multiple effects model. Developmental Psychology, 1984, 20, 523–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jacobson, S. W., Fein, G. G., Jacobson, J. L., Schwartz, P. M., and Dowler, J. K. The effect of intrauterine PCB exposure on visual recognition memory. Child Development, 1985, 56, 853–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jacobson, S. W., Jacobson, J. L., Dowler, J. K., Fein, G. G., and Schwartz, P. M. Sensitivity of Fagan’s recognition memory test to subtle intrauterine risk. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Anaheim, Calif., Sept., 1983.Google Scholar
  31. Johnson, H. L., and Rosen, T. S. Prenatal methadone exposure: Effects on behavior in early infancy. Pediatric Pharmacology, 1982, 2, 113–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Larsson, G., Bohlin, A. B., and Tunell, R. Prospective study of children exposed to variable amounts of alcohol in utero. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1985, 60, 316–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewis, M., Bartels, B., Campbell, H., and Goldberg, S. Individual differences in attention. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1967, 113, 461–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lowe, J., Windsor, R. A., Adams, B., Morris, J., and Reese, Y. Use of a bogus pipeline method to increase accuracy of self-reported alcohol consumption among pregnant women. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1986, 47, 173–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Lowry, R. B., Miller, J. R., Scott, A. E., and Renwick, D. H. G. The British Columbia Registry for Handicapped Children and Adults: Evolutionary changes over twenty years. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 1975, 66, 322–326.Google Scholar
  36. Marden, P. M., Smith, D. W., and McDonald, M. J. Congenital anomalies in the newborn infant, including minor variations. Journal of Pediatrics, 1984, 64, 357–371.Google Scholar
  37. McCall, R. B., Eichorn, D. H., and Hogarty, P. S. Transitions in early mental development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1977, 42, 1–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Naeye, R. L., and Peters, E. C. Mental development of children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1984, 64, 601–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Nelson, K. B., and Ellenberg, J. H. Apgar scores as predictors of chronic neurologic disability. Pediatrics, 1981, 68, 36–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Noland, E. C., and Schuldt, W. J. Sustained attention and reading retardation. Journal of Experimental Education, 1971, 40, 73–76.Google Scholar
  41. Olofsson, M., Buckley, W., Andersen, G. E., and Friis-Hansen, B. Investigation of 89 children born by drug-dependent mothers. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 1983, 72, 407–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Porrino, L. J., Rapoport, J. L., Behar, D., Sceery, W., Ismond, D. R., and Bunney, W. E. A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys: I. Comparison with normal controls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1983a, 40, 681–682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Porrino, L. J., Rapoport, J. L., Behar, D., Sceery, W., Ismond, D. R., and Bunney, W. E. A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1983b, 40, 683–687.Google Scholar
  44. Prechtl, H. F. R. Prognostic value of neurological signs in the newborn infant. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1965, 58, 3–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Prechtl, H. F. R. Hazards of over-simplification. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1970, 12, 522–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Prechtl, H. F. R., and Beintema, D. J. The Neurological Examination of the Full-Term Newborn Infant. London: Spastics International Medical Publications and Heinemann Medical Books, 1977.Google Scholar
  47. Roger, W. J., Glader, B. C., McKivvery, J. D., Cavveras, N., Hady, P., Thullen, S., Tinglestad, S., and Tully, M. Neonatal effects of transplacental exposure to PCBs and DDE. Journal of Pediatrics, 1986, 109, 335–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rose, S. A., and Wallace, I. F. Visual recognition memory: A predictor of later cognitive functioning in preterms. Child Development, 1985, 56, 843–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosvold, H. E., Mirsky, A. F., Sarason, I., Bransome, E. D., and Beck, L. N. A continuous performance test of brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychiatry, 1956, 20, 343–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Scanion, J. W., Brown, W. U., and Weiss, J. B. Neurobehavioral responses of newborn infants after maternal epidural anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 1974, 40, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Serunian, S. A., and Broman, S. H. Relationship of Apgar scores and Bayley mental and motor scores. Child Development, 1975, 46, 696–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sever, L. E. “Incidence and prevalence as measures of the frequency of birth defects”. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1983, 118, 608–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Shaywitz, S. E., Caparulo, B. K., and Hodgson, E. S. Developmental language disability as a consequence of prenatal exposure to ethanol. Pediatrics, 1981, 68, 850–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Shepard, T. H. Human teratogens: How can we sort them out? New York Academy of Sciences, 1986, 477, 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Staisey, N. L., and Fried, P. A. Relationships between moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and infant neurological development. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1983, 44, 262–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Standley, K., Soule, A. B., Copans, S. A., and Duchowny, M. S. Local-regional anesthesia during childhood: Effect on newborn behaviors. Science, 1974, 186, 186–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Strauss, A. A., and Kephart, N. C. Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child (Vol. 2). New York: Grune & Stratton, 1955.Google Scholar
  58. Strauss, A. A., and Lehtinen, V. Psychopathology and Education of the Brain-Injured Child (Vol. 1). New York: Grune & Stratton, 1947.Google Scholar
  59. Strauss, M. E., Lessen-Firestone, J. K., Starr, R. H., and Ostrea, E. M. Behavior of narcotics-addicted newborns. Child Development, 1915, 46, 887–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Strauss, M. E., Lessen-Firestone, J. K., Chavez, C. J., and Stryker, J. C. Children of methadone-treated women at five years of age. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 1979, 2, 3–6.Google Scholar
  61. Streissguth, A. P., Barr, H. M., and Martin, D. C. Offspring effects and complications of labor and delivery related to self-reported maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. Developmental Pharmacology and Therapy, 1982, 5, 21–32.Google Scholar
  62. Streissguth, A. P., Barr, H. M., Sampson, P. D., Parrish-Johnson, J. C., Kirchner, G. L., and Martin, D. C. Attention, distraction and reaction time at age 7 years and prenatal alcohol exposure. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 1986, 8, 717–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Streissguth, A. P., Herman, C. S., and Smith, D. W. Intelligence, behavior, and dysmorphogenesis in the fetal alcohol syndrome: A report on 20 patients. Journal of Pediatrics, 1978a, 92, 363–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Streissguth, A. P., Herman, C. S., and Smith, D. W. Stability of intelligence in the fetal alcohol syndrome: A preliminary report. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1978b, 2, 165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sykes, D. H., Douglas, V. I., and Morgenstern, G. Sustained attention in hyperactive children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1973, 14, 213–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weiss, G. The natural history of hyperactivity in childhood and treatment with stimulant medication at different ages: A summary of research findings. International Journal of Mental Health, 1975, 4, 213–226.Google Scholar
  67. Wilson, G. S., McCreary, R., Kean, J., and Baxter, J. C. The development of preschool children of heroin-addicted mothers: A controlled study. Pediatrics, 1979, 63, 135–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Writer, W. D. R., James, F. M., and Wheeler, A. S. Double blind comparison of morphine and bupivacaine for continuous epidural analgesia in labor. Anesthesiology, 1981, 54, 215–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zigler, E., and Cascione, R. Mental retardation: An overview. In E. G. Gollin (Ed.), Malformations of Development. New York: Academic Press, 1984. Pp. 69–94.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ernest L. Abel
    • 1
  1. 1.Wayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations